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[11] It is obvious, therefore, that a system arranged according to the rules of art is only concerned with proofs; that proof is a sort of demonstration,1 since we are most strongly convinced when we suppose anything to have been demonstrated; that rhetorical demonstration is an enthymeme, which, generally speaking, is the strongest of rhetorical proofs and lastly, that the enthymeme is a kind of syllogism. Now, as it is the function of Dialectic as a whole, or of one of its parts,2 to consider every kind of syllogism in a similar manner, it is clear that he who is most capable of examining the matter and forms of a syllogism will be in the highest degree a master of rhetorical argument, if to this he adds a knowledge of the subjects with which enthymemes deal and the differences between them and logical syllogisms. For, in fact, the true and that which resembles it come under the purview of the same faculty, and at the same time men have a sufficient natural capacity for the truth and indeed in most cases attain to it; wherefore one who divines well in regard to the truth will also be able to divine well in regard to probabilities.3

It is clear, then, that all other rhetoricians bring under the rules of art what is outside the subject,
and4 have rather inclined to the forensic branch of oratory.

1 Exact scientific proof ( ἀπόδειξις), which probable proof ( πίστις) only to a certain extent resembles.

2 Dialectic here apparently includes logic generally, the “part” being either the Analytica Priori, which deals with the syllogism, or the Sophistici Elenchi, on Fallacies.

3 ἔνδοξα, “resting on opinion”; defined in the Topics (1.1) as “things generally admitted by all, or by most men, or by the wise, and by all or most of these, or by the most notable and esteemed.”

4 διότι either = ὅτι, “that”; or, (it is clear) “why.”

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