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[27] As to oaths1 four divisions may be made; for either we tender an oath and accept it, or we do neither, or one without the other, and in the last case we either tender but do not accept, or accept but do not tender. Besides this, one may consider whether the oath has already been taken by us or by the other party.

1 In Attic legal procedure, the challenge ( πρόκλησις) to take an oath on the question at issue was one method of deciding it. One party offered the other something to swear by ( δίδωσι ὅρκον), this being the real meaning of ὅρκος, and the other party either accepted ( λαμβάνει, δέχεται) it or refused it. Both parties, of their own accord, might propose to take the oath.

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