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11. The frame of mind in which men feel emulation, what things and persons give rise to it, will be clear from the following considerations. Let us assume that emulation is a feeling of pain at the evident presence of highly valued goods, which are possible for us to obtain, in the possession of those who naturally resemble us—pain not due to the fact that another possesses them, but to the fact that we ourselves do not. Emulation therefore is virtuous and characteristic of virtuous men, whereas envy is base and characteristic of base men; for the one, owing to emulation, fits himself to obtain such goods, while the object of the other, owing to envy, is to prevent his neighbor possessing them.
Necessarily, then, those are emulous who hold that they have a claim to goods that they do not possess;1 for no one claims what seems impossible. [2] Hence the young and high-minded are emulous. And so are those who possess such advantages as are worthy of honorable men, which include wealth, a number of friends, positions of office, and all similar things. For, believing it their duty to be good, because such goods naturally belong to those who are good, they strive to preserve them. And those are emulous, whom others think worthy of them. [3] Honors obtained by ancestors, kinsfolk, intimates, nation, or city make men emulous in regard to such honors; for they think that these honors really belong to them and that they are worthy of them. [4] And if highly valued goods are the object of emulation, it necessarily follows that the virtues must be such and all things that are useful and beneficial to the rest of mankind, for benefactors and virtuous men are honored; to these we may add all the goods which our neighbors can enjoy with us, such as wealth and beauty, rather than health.2

[5] It is also evident who are the objects of emulation; for they are those who possess these or similar goods, such as have already been spoken of, for instance, courage, wisdom, authority; for those in authority, such as generals, orators, and all who have similar powers, can do good to many. [6] And those whom many desire to be like, or to be their acquaintances
or friends;3 those whom many or ourselves admire; [7] those who are praised or eulogized either by poets or by prose writers.4 The opposite characters we despise; for contempt is the opposite of emulation, and the idea of emulation of the idea of contempt. And those who are in a condition which makes them emulate, or be emulated by, others, must be inclined to despise those persons5 (and for that reason) who suffer from defects contrary to the good things which excite emulation. That is why we often despise those who are fortunate, whenever their good fortune is not accompanied by highly valued goods. The means of producing and destroying the various emotions in men, from which the methods of persuasion that concern them are derived, have now been stated.

1 Something like “although they are within their grasp” is needed to complete the sense.

2 Spending one's money benefits one's neighbor to a certain extent, and beauty is always pleasant to look upon. One does not admire anyone because he is in good health, so much as because he is handsome.

3 “Who have many acquaintances or friends” (Jebb).

4 λογογράφοι means either the oldest Greek historians (or rather “chroniclers”), or the writers of speeches for use in the law courts, or of panegyrics.

5 καὶ ἐπὶ τούτοις. According to Cope, an unnecessary parenthetical note (“and on such occasions”). Jebb refers both τούτων and τούτοις to persons: “tend to show contempt to or about those who.” The “reason” in the translation above is that they suffer from the want of “the highly valued goods.”

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