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[5] Similarly, he who insults another also slights him; for insult1 consists in causing injury or annoyance whereby the sufferer is disgraced, not to obtain any other advantage for oneself besides the performance of the act, but for one's own pleasure; for retaliation is not insult, but punishment.

1 In Attic law ὕβρις (insulting, degrading treatment) was a more serious offence than αἰκία (bodily ill-treatment). It was the subject of a State criminal prosecution ( γραφή), αἰκία of a private action ( δίκη) for damages. The penalty was assessed in court, and might even be death. It had to be proved that the defendant struck the first blow (2.24.9). One of the best known instances is the action brought by Demosthenes against Midias for a personal outrage on himself, when choregus of his tribe and responsible for the equipment of a chorus for musical competitions at public festivals.

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