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[21] Another topic common to forensic and deliberative rhetoric consists in examining what is hortatory and dissuasive, and the reasons which make men act or not. Now, these are the reasons which, if they exist, determine us to act, if not, not; for instance, if a thing is possible, easy, or useful to ourselves or our friends, or injurious and prejudicial to our enemies, or if the penalty is less than the profit. From these grounds we exhort, and dissuade from their contraries.
It is on the same grounds that we accuse and defend; for what dissuades serves for defence,1 what persuades, for accusation. This topic comprises the whole “Art” of Pamphilus and Callippus.

1 By pointing out what is likely to deter a man from committing a crime, and vice versa.

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