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brave in face of dangers, and to prefer a fine death to base security, and to be a cause of victory. It also belongs to courage to labor and endure and play a manly part. Courage is accompanied by confidence and bravery and daring, and also by perseverance and endurance. [5]

To sobriety of mind it belongs not to value highly bodily pleasures and enjoyments, not to be covetous of every enjoyable pleasure, to fear disorder, and to live an orderly life in small things and great alike. Sobriety of mind is accompanied by orderliness, regularity, modesty, caution.5.

To self-control belongs ability to restrain desire by reason when it is set on base enjoyments and pleasures, and to be resolute, and readiness to endure natural want and pain. [2]

To righteousness it belongs to be ready to distribute according to desert, and to preserve ancestral customs and institutions and the established laws, and to tell the truth when interest is at stake, and to keep agreements. First among the claims of righteousness are our duties to the gods, then our duties to the spirits,1 then those to country and parents, then those to the departed; and among these claims is piety, which is either a part of righteousness or a concomitant of it. [3] Righteousness is also accompanied by holiness and truth and loyalty and hatred of wickedness. [4]

To liberality it belongs to be profuse of money on praiseworthy objects and lavish in spending on what is necessary, and to be helpful in a matter of dispute, and not to take from wrong sources. The liberal man is cleanly in his dress and dwelling, and fond of providing himself with things that are above the ordinary and fine and that afford entertainment without being profitable; and he is fond of keeping animals that have something special or remarkable about them. [5] Liberality is accompanied by elasticity and ductility of character, and kindness, and a compassionate and affectionate and hospitable and honorable nature. [6]

To greatness of spirit it belongs to bear finely both good fortune and bad, honor and disgrace, and not to think highly of luxury or attention or power or victories in contests, and to possess a certain depth and magnitude of spirit. He who values life highly and who is fond of life is not great-spirited. The great-spirited man is simple and noble in character, able to bear injustice and not revengeful. [7] Greatness of spirit is accompanied by simplicity and sincerity.6.

To folly belongs bad judgement of affairs, bad counsel, bad fellowship, bad use of one's resources, false opinions

1 Deities of a minor order, in some cases the souls of dead men of the heroic age; often the object of only local worship.

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