PROPOSITION 27.

To find medial straight lines commensurable in square only which contain a rational rectangle.

Let two rational straight lines A, B commensurable in square only be set out; let C be taken a mean proportional between A, B, [VI. 13] and let it be contrived that,

as A is to B, so is C to D. [VI. 12]

Then, since A, B are rational and commensurable in square only, the rectangle A, B, that is, the square on C [VI.17], is medial. [X. 21]

Therefore C is medial. [X. 21]

And since, as A is to B, so is C to D, and A, B are commensurable in square only, therefore C, D are also commensurable in square only. [X. 11]

And C is medial; therefore D is also medial. [X. 23, addition]

Therefore C, D are medial and commensurable in square only.

I say that they also contain a rational rectangle.

For since, as A is to B, so is C to D, therefore, alternately, as A is to C, so is B to D. [V. 16]

But, as A is to C, so is C to B; therefore also, as C is to B, so is B to D; therefore the rectangle C, D is equal to the square on B.

But the square on B is rational; therefore the rectangle C, D is also rational.

Therefore medial straight lines commensurable in square only have been found which contain a rational rectangle. Q. E. D.