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1 From the time of the “reforms” of Ephialtes （see Isoc. 7.50: τοῖς ὀλίγῳ πρὸ ἡμῶν）, and especially after the death of Pericles. Aristotle （Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28） states: “So long, however, as Pericles was leader of the people, things went tolerably well with the State; but when he was dead there was a great change for the worse. Then for the first time did the people choose a leader who was of no reputation among the people of good standing, whereas up to this time men of good standing were always found as leaders of the democracy” （Kenyon's translation）. Aristotle goes on to say that Pericles was followed by such leaders as Cleon, the tanner—insolent demagogues who vied with each other in pandering to the mob.