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[556a] foster the drone and pauper element in the state.” “They do indeed multiply it,” he said. “And they are not willing to quench the evil as it bursts into flame either by way of a law prohibiting a man from doing as he likes with his own,1 or in this way, by a second law that does away with such abuses.” “What law?” “The law that is next best, and compels the citizens to pay heed to virtue.2 For if a law commanded that most voluntary contracts3 should be at the contractor's risk, [556b] the pursuit of wealth would be less shameless in the state and fewer of the evils of which we spoke just now would grow up there.” “Much fewer,” he said. “But as it is, and for all these reasons, this is the plight to which the rulers in the state reduce their subjects, and as for themselves and their off-spring, do they not make the young spoiled4 wantons averse to toil of body and mind, [556c] and too soft to stand up against pleasure and pain,5 and mere idlers?” “Surely.” “And do they not fasten upon themselves the habit of neglect of everything except the making of money, and as complete an indifference to virtue as the paupers exhibit?” “Little they care.” “And when, thus conditioned, the rulers and the ruled are brought together on the march, in wayfaring, or in some other common undertaking, either a religious festival, or a campaign, or as shipmates or fellow-soldiers [556d] or, for that matter, in actual battle, and observe one another, then the poor are not in the least scorned by the rich, but on the contrary, do you not suppose it often happens that when a lean, sinewy, sunburnt6 pauper is stationed in battle beside a rich man bred in the shade, and burdened with superfluous flesh,7 and sees him panting and helpless8—do you not suppose he will think that such fellows keep their wealth by the cowardice9 of the poor, and that when the latter are together in private, [556e] one will pass the word to another ‘our men are good for nothing’?” “Nay, I know very well that they do,” said he. “And just as an unhealthy body requires but a slight impulse10 from outside to fall into sickness, and sometimes, even without that, all the man is one internal war, in like manner does not the corresponding type of state need only a slight occasion,11 the one party bringing in12 allies from an oligarchical state, or the other from a democratic, to become diseased and wage war with itself, and sometimes even

1 Cf. on 552 A, Laws 922 E-923 A.

2 Cf. Protag. 327 Dἀναγκάζουσα ἀρετῆς ἐπιμελεῖσθαι, Symp. 185 B, and for ἐπιμελεῖσθαι Cf. What Plato Said, p. 464, on Apol. 29 D-E.

3 For refusing to enforce monetary contracts Cf. Laws 742 C, 849 E, 915 E, and Newman ii. p. 254 on Aristot.Pol. 1263 b 21.

4 Cf. What Plato Said, p. 483, on Laches 179 D, and Aristot.Pol. 1310 a 23.

5 Cf. 429 C-D, Laches 191 D-E, Laws 633 D.

6 Cf. Tucker on Aesch.Suppl. 726.

7 Cf. Soph.Ajax 758περισσὰ κἀνόνητα σώματα.

8 For a similar picture cf. Aristoph.Frogs 1086-1098. Cf. also Gorg. 518 C, and for the whole passage Xen.Mem. iii. 5. 15, Aristot.Pol. 1310 a 24-25.

9 The poor, though stronger, are too cowardly to use force. For κακίᾳ τῇ σφετέρᾳ cf. Lysias ii. 65κακίᾳ τῇ αὑτῶν, Rhesus 813-814τῇ Φρυγῶν κακανδρίᾳ, Phaedrus 248 B, Symp. 182 D, Crito 45 E, Eurip.Androm. 967, Aristoph.Thesm. 868τῇ κοράκων πονηρίᾳ.

10 Cf. Soph.O. T. 961σμικρὰ παλαῖα σώματ᾽ εὐνάζει ῥοπή” a slight impulse puts aged bodies to sleep,” Demosth.Olynth. ii. 9 and 21. Cf. 544 E.

11 Cf. Polyb. vi. 57. Montaigne, apudHöffding, i. 30 “Like every other being each illness has its appointed time of development and close—interference is futile,” with Tim. 89 B.

12 Cf. Thuc. i. 3, ii. 68, iv. 64, Herod. ii. 108.

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