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[560a] or from his other kin, who admonish and reproach him, then there arises faction1 and counter-faction and internal strife in the man with himself.” “Surely.” “And sometimes, I suppose, the democratic element retires before the oligarchical, some of its appetites having been destroyed and others2 expelled, and a sense of awe and reverence grows up in the young man's soul and order is restored.” “That sometimes happens,” he said. “And sometimes, again, another brood of desires akin to those expelled [560b] are stealthily nurtured to take their place, owing to the father's ignorance of true education, and wax numerous and strong.” “Yes, that is wont to be the way of it.” “And they tug and pull back to the same associations and in secret intercourse engender a multitude.” “Yes indeed.” “And in the end, I suppose, they seize the citadel3 of the young man's soul, finding it empty and unoccupied by studies and honorable pursuits and true discourses, which are the best watchmen [560c] and guardians4 in the minds of men who are dear to the gods.” “Much the best,” he said. “And then false and braggart words5 and opinions charge up the height and take their place and occupy that part of such a youth.” “They do indeed.” “And then he returns, does he not, to those Lotus-eaters6 and without disguise lives openly with them. And if any support7 comes from his kin to the thrifty element in his soul, those braggart discourses close the gates of the royal fortress within him [560d] and refuse admission to the auxiliary force itself, and will not grant audience as to envoys to the words of older friends in private life. And they themselves prevail in the conflict, and naming reverence and awe ‘folly’8 thrust it forth, a dishonored fugitive. And temperance they call ‘want of manhood’ and banish it with contumely, and they teach that moderation and orderly expenditure are ‘rusticity’ and ‘illiberality,’ and they combine with a gang of unprofitable and harmful appetites to drive them over the border.9” “They do indeed.” “And when they have emptied [560e] and purged10 of all these the soul of the youth that they have thus possessed11 and occupied, and whom they are initiating with these magnificent and costly rites,12 they proceed to lead home from exile insolence and anarchy and prodigality and shamelessness, resplendent13 in a great attendant choir and crowned with garlands, and in celebration of their praises they euphemistically denominate insolence ‘good breeding,’ licence ‘liberty,’ prodigality ‘magnificence,’

1 Cf. on 554 D, p. 276, note c.

2 τινες . . . αἱ μὲν . . . αἱ δὲ. For the partitive apposition cf. 566 E, 584 D, Gorg. 499 C. Cf. also Protag. 330 A, Gorg. 450 C, Laws 626 E, Eurip.Hec. 1185-1186.

3 Cf. Tim. 90 A.

4 For the idea of guardians of the soul Cf. Laws 961 D, 549 B Cf. also on Phaedo 113 D, What Plato Said, p. 536.

5 Cf. Phaedo 92 D.

6 Plato, like Matthew Arnold, liked to use nicknames for classes of people: Cf. Rep. 415 Dγηγενεῖς, Theaet. 181 Aῥέοντας, Soph. 248 Aεἰδῶν φίλους, Phileb. 44 Eτοῖς δυσχερέσιν. So Arnold in Culture and Anarchy uses Populace, Philistines, Barbarians, Friends of Culture, etc., Friends of Physical Science, Lit. and Dogma, p. 3.

7 βοήθεια: cf. Aristot.De an. 404 a 12.

8 Cf. 474 D, Thucyd. iii. 82 Wilamowitz, Platon, i. 435-436 says that Plato had not used Thucydides. But cf. Gomperz iii. 331, and What Plato Said, pp. 2-3, 6, 8. See Isoc.Antid. 284σκώπτειν καὶ μιμεῖσθαι δυναμένους εὐφυεῖς καλοῦσι, etc., Areop. 20 and 49, Aristot.Eth. Nic. 1180 b 25, Quintil. iii. 7. 25 and viii. 6. 36, Sallust, Cat.C 52 “iam pridem equidem nos vera vocabula rerum amisimus,” etc.

9 ὑπερορίζουσι: cf. Laws 855 Cὑπερορίαν φυγάδα, 866 D.

10 Cf. 567 C and 573 B where the word is also used ironically, and Laws 735, Polit. 293 D, Soph. 226 D.

11 κατέχομαι is used of divine “possession” or inspiration in Phaedr. 244 E, Ion 533 E, 536 B, etc., Xen.Symp. 1. 10.

12 Plato frequently employs the language of the mysteries for literary effect. Cf. Gorg. 497 C, Symp. 210 A and 218 B, Theaet. 155 E-156 A, Laws 666 B, 870 D-E, Phaedr. 250 B-C, 249 C, Phaedo 81 A, 69 C, Rep. 378 A, etc., and Thompson on Meno 76 E.

13 Cf. 628. 5 (Nauck), Soph.El. 1130.

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