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1 The scene is a long, narrow valley. The rear (οὐρά) of the Lacedaemonian line is at the head of the valley, while the van, where Agesilaus has his position, is at the opening of the valley into the plain. The enemy are gathering upon the hills on one side of the valley. Agesilaus first faces his troops toward the enemy (τὰ ὅπλα...φαίνων). The marching line is thus transformed, technically, into a “phalanx,” or line of battle. Then, by the ἀναστροφή (see note on ii. 21), the οὐρά, i.e., the original rear of the marching line, is folded back and gradually drawn out, “behind the phalanx,” to the open end of the valley. The entire army now marches out into the plain. There the process just described is reversed, so bringing the line back to its original form.
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