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[154] Both were students of the science and arts1 of their own country, of Greece, and of foreign nations. As to those of India, Alexander interrogated the Brahmins who seem to be the astronomers and learned men of that country, like the Magi among the Persians. Cæsar likewise interrogated the Egyptians while he was there restoring Cleopatra to the throne, by which means he made many improvements among the peaceful arts for the Romans. He changed the calendar, which was still in disorder by reason of the intercalary months till then in use, for the Romans reckoned the year by the moon. Cæsar changed it to the sun's course, as the Egyptians reckoned it.2 It happened in his case that not one of the conspirators against him escaped, but all were brought to condign punishment by his adopted son, just as the murderers of Philip were by Alexander. How they were punished the succeeding books will show. MARK ANTONY In the Vatican Museum, Rome

1 ἐπιστήμην τῆς ἀρετῆς: literally, " the science of excellence," which is by no means clear. Nauck marks the last word doubtful.

2 Cæsar also, at this time, changed the beginning of the year from the first of March to the first of January, because the latter was the date for changing the supreme magistrates. "Both changes came into effect on the first January 709 of the city (45 B.C.), and along with them the use of the Julian Calendar, so named after its author, which, long after the fall of the monarchy of Cæsar, remained the regulative standard of the civilized world, and in the main is so still." (Mommsen.

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