Destruction of Celtiberian Cities
TIBERIUS GRACCHUS destroyed three hundred cities of the
. . .
The Accession of Perseus
The attack upon him being sudden and
B.C. 179. Coss. Q. Fulvius, L. Manlius. The ex-praetors Ti. Sempronius Gracchus and L. Postumius
were still in Spain, where they had been since B. C. 182. Livy, 40, 1, 44.
Renewed war of Eumenes and Ariarathes upon Pharnaces. See bk. 24, chs. 8, 9.
formidable, Pharnaces was reduced to submit
to almost any terms; and on his sending an
embassy, Eumenes and Ariarathes immediately
accepted his proposals, and sent ambassadors
to Pharnaces in return. When this had been
repeated several times, the pacification was
concluded on the following terms: "Eumenes,
Prusias, and Ariarathes, shall maintain perpetual
peace with Pharnaces and Mithridates.
"Pharnaces shall not enter Galatia on any pretence.
"Such treaties as exist between Pharnaces
and Gauls are hereby rescinded.
"Pharnaces shall likewise evacuate Paphlagonia, after restoring the inhabitants whom he had previously expelled, with
their shields, javelins, and other equipment.
"Pharnaces shall restore to Ariarathes all territory of which
he has deprived him, with the property thereon and the hostages.
"He shall restore Tium by the Pontus, which some time
before was given freely and liberally by Eumenes
"Pharnaces shall restore, without ransom, all prisoners of
war and all deserters.
"He shall repay to Morzius and Ariarathes, in lieu of all
money and treasure taken from them, the sum of nine hundred talents, and shall add thereto three hundred talents for
Eumenes towards the expenses of the war.
"Mithridates, the Satrap of Armenia, shall also pay three
hundred talents, because he attacked Ariarathes in defiance of
the treaty with Eumenes.
"The persons included under this treaty are, of the princes
in Asia, Artaxias, lord of the greater part of Armenia, and
Acusilochus: of those in Europe, Gatalus the Sarmatian: of
the autonomous peoples, the Heracleotes, the Mesembrians in
the Chersonese, and the Cyzicenes."
The number and quality of hostages to be given by
Pharnaces was also specified. The armies of the several
parties then marched away, and thus was concluded the war
of Eumenes and Ariarathes against Pharnaces.
Philip V. died at Amphipolis towards the end of B.C. 179.
His last days were embittered by remorse for the death of his son
Demetrius, whose innocence had been demonstrated to him. He
wished to leave his crown to Antigonus, the son of Echecrates and
nephew of Antigonus Doson, in order to punish his elder son
Perseus for his treachery in securing his brother's death. But
Philip died suddenly before this could be secured, and Perseus
succeeded him without opposition. See Livy, 40, 55-57.
First Acts of Perseus as King
Having renewed the alliance with Rome, Perseus immediately began intriguing in Greece. He
The opening of the reign of Perseus.
invited back into Macedonia absconding debtors,
condemned exiles, and those who had been
compelled to leave their country on charges of treason. He
caused notices to be put up to that effect at Delos, Delphi,
and the temple of Athena at Iton,2
offering not only indemnity
to all who returned, but also the restoration of the property
lost by their exile. Such also as still remained in Macedonia
he released from their debts to the Royal exchequer, and set
free those who had been confined in fortresses upon charges of
treason. By these measures he raised expectations in the
minds of many, and was considered to be holding out great
hopes to all the Greeks. Nor were other parts of his life
and habits wanting in a certain royal magnificence. His
outward appearance was striking, and he was well endowed
with all the physical advantages requisite for a statesman. His
look and mien were alike dignified and such as became his
age. He had moreover avoided his father's weakness for wine
and women, and not only drank moderately at dinner himself,
but was imitated in this respect by his intimates and friends.
Such was the commencement of the reign of Perseus. . . .
When king Philip had become powerful and had obtained
supremacy over the Greeks, he showed the most
utter disregard of faith and principle; but when
the breeze of fortune again set against him, his
moderation was as conspicuous in its turn. But after his final
and complete defeat, he tried by every possible expedient to
consolidate the strength of his kingdom.
Character and First Measures of Perseus
After despatching the consuls Tiberius and Claudius
B. C. 177. Coss. C. Claudius Pulcher, Ti. Sempronius Gracchus. Embassy from Lycia against Rhodes. See bk. 24. ch. 9.
against the Istri and Agrii,3
the Senate towards
the end of summer transacted business with
the ambassadors that had come from the
Lycians. They had not arrived at Rome until
the Lycians had been completely conquered,
but they had been despatched a considerable
time before. For the people of Xanthus in
Lycia, when about to embark upon the war, had
sent Nicostratus and others to Achaia and Rome as ambassadors: who coming to Rome at that time moved many of the
Senators to pity them, by laying before them the oppressiveness
of the Rhodians and their own danger; and at length induced the
Senate to send envoys to Rhodes to declare that "On inspecting
the record of the arrangements made by the ten commissioners
in Asia, when settling the dominions of Antiochus, it appeared
that the Lycians had been given to the Rhodians, not as a
gift, but rather as friends and allies." But many were still dissatisfied with this solution of the matter. For the Romans
seemed to wish, by thus pitting Rhodes against Lycia, to exhaust
the accumulations and treasures of the Rhodians, because they
had heard of the recent conveyance of the bride of Perseus by
the Rhodians, and of their grand naval review. For shortly
before this the Rhodians had been holding, with great splendour and elaboration
of equipment, a review of all vessels belonging to them; the fact being that a vast quantity of timber
for ship-building had been presented to them by Perseus.
Moreover he had presented a gold tiara to each
of the rowers on the upper bench in the ship
that had brought him his bride Laodice.4
. . .
Lycians Revolt Again
When the envoys from Rome reached Rhodes and
Excitement at Rhodes; and a fresh determination of the Lycians to assert independence.
announced the decrees of the Senate, there was
a great excitement in the island, and much confused discussion among the leading politicians.
They were much annoyed at the allegation that
the Lycians had not been given them as a gift
but as allies; for having just satisfied themselves
that the Lycian war was successfully concluded, they saw the
commencement of fresh trouble for themselves growing up.
For no sooner had the Romans arrived and made this
announcement to the Rhodians, than the Lycians began a
fresh revolt, and showed a determination of fighting to the last
extremity for autonomy and freedom. However, after hearing
the Roman envoys, the Rhodians made up their minds that the
Romans had been deceived by the Lycians, and forthwith
appointed Lycophron to lead an embassy to offer an explanation to the Senate. And the state of affairs was such that
there was momentary expectation of a fresh rising of the
Lycians. . . .
The Dardanian Envoys Complain about Perseus
When the Rhodian envoys arrived in Rome the Senate,
Rhodian question deferred.
after listening to their address, deferred its
answer. Meanwhile the Dardanian envoys
came with reports as to the number of the
Bastarnae, the size of their men, and their courage in the field.
Reports of the intrigues of Perseus. See Livy, 41, 19, B. C. 176-175.
They gave information also of the treacherous
practices of Perseus and the Gauls, and said
that they were more afraid of him than of the
Bastarnae, and therefore begged the help of the
Romans. The report of the Dardani being
supported by that of the Thessalian envoys who arrived at that
time, and who also begged for help, the Senators determined
to send some commissioners to see with their own eyes the
truth of these reports; and they accordingly at once appointed
and despatched Aulus Postumius, accompanied by some
young men. . .