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First, he stated that the earth was entirely encompassed by the ocean, as in truth it is; afterwards he described the countries, specifying some by name, others more generally by various indications, explicitly defining Libya,1 Ethiopia, the Sidonians, and the Erembi (by which latter are probably intended the Troglodyte Arabians); and alluding to those farther east and west as the lands washed by the ocean, for in ocean he believed both the sun and constellations to rise and set.

β€œ Now from the gently-swelling flood profound
The sun arising, with his earliest rays,
In his ascent to heaven smote on the fields.2


Iliad vii. 421

β€œAnd now the radiant sun in ocean sank,
Dragging night after him o'er all the earth.3


Iliad viii. 485
The stars also he describes as bathed in the ocean.4

1 Africa.

2 Then indeed the sun freshly struck the fields [with its rays], ascending heaven from the calmly-flowing, deep-moving ocean. Iliad vii. 421; Odyssey xix. 433. These references relate to the Greek text; any one wishing to verify the poetic translation will find the place in Cowper, by adding a few lines to the number adapted to the Greek. The prose version is taken from Bohn's edition.

3 And the bright light of the sun fell into the ocean, drawing dark night over tile fruitful earth. Iliad viii. 485

Bright and steady as the star
Autumnal, which in ocean newly bathed,
Assumes fresh beauty.

Iliad v. 6

4 Iliad v.6.

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