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Many writers have recorded similar occurrences, but it will suffice us to narrate those which have been collected by Demetrius of Skepsis.

Apropos of that passage of Homer:—

“ And now they reach'd the running rivulets clear,
Where from Scamander's dizzy flood arise
Two fountains, tepid one, from which a smoke
Issues voluminous as from a fire,
The other, even in summer heats, like hail
For cold, or snow, or crystal stream frost-bound:1

Iliad xxii. 147.
this writer tells us we must not be surprised, that although the cold spring still remains, the hot cannot be discovered; and says we must reckon the failing of the hot spring as the cause. He goes on to relate certain catastrophes recorded by Democles, how formerly in the reign of Tantalus2 there were great earthquakes in Lydia and Ionia as far as the Troad,3 which swallowed up whole villages and overturned Mount Sipylus;4 marshes then became lakes, and the city of Troy was covered by the waters.5 Pharos, near Egypt, which anciently was an island, may now be called a peninsula, and the same may be said of Tyre and Clazomenæ.6

During my stay at Alexandria in Egypt the sea rose so high near Pelusium7 and Mount Casius8 as to overflow the land, and convert the mountain into an island, so that a journey from Casius into Phoenicia might have been undertaken by water. We should not be surprised therefore if in time to come the isthmus9 which separates the Egyptian sea10 from the Erythræan,11 should part asunder or subside, and becoming a strait, connect the outer and inner seas,12 similarly to what has taken place at the strait of the Pillars.

At the commencement of this work will be found some other narrations of a similar kind, which should be considered at the same time, and which will greatly tend to strengthen our belief both in these works of nature and also in its other changes.

1 And reached the two fair-flowing springs, where the two springs of the eddying Scamander rise. The one, indeed, flows with tepid water, and a steam arises from it around, as of burning fire; whilst the other flows forth in the summer time, like unto hail, or cold snow, or ice from water Iliad xxii. 147.

2 Tantalus lived about 1387, B. C.

3 Lydia and Ionia form the modern provinces of Aidin and Sarukan in Anadoli. A part of the Troad still preserves the name of Troiaki.

4 A mountain in Mæonia, close to the city of Magnesia.

5 Ilus, who ascended the throne about 1400 years before the Christian era, founded the city, to which he gave the name of Ilium. The old city of Troy stood on a hill, and was safe from the inundation.

6 These two cities were built on little islets adjoining the continent. Alexander connected them with the mainland by means of jetties. Clazomenæ was situated on the Gulf of Smyrna, near to a place now called Vurla or Burla. The present appellation of Tyre, on the coast of Phœmicia, is Sur.

7 Tineh.

8 El-Kas.

9 Of Suez.

10 That part of the Mediterranean adjoining Egypt.

11 The Red Sea.

12 The Red Sea and Mediterranean.

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