The Fourteenth Book contains an account of the Cyclades islands and the
region opposite to them, Pamphylia, Isauria, Lycia, Pisidia, Cilicia as far
as Seleucia of Syria, and that part of Asia properly called Ionia.
THERE remain to be described Ionia, Caria, and the
sea-coast beyond the Taurus, which is occupied by Lycians,
Pamphylians, and Cilicians.1
We shall thus finish the description of the whole circuit of the peninsula, the isthmus of
which, we have said, consists of the tract between the Euxine
and the Sea of Issus.
The navigation around Ionia along the coast is about
3430 stadia. It is a considerable distance, on account of the
gulfs, and of the peninsular form for the most, part of the
country, but the length in a straight line is not great. The
distance, for example, from Ephesus to Smyrna is a journey
in a straight line of 320 stadia; to Metropolis2
is 120 stadia,
and the remainder to Smyrna; but this distance by sea is
little less than 2200 stadia. The extent of the Ionian coast
is reckoned from Poseidium,3
belonging to the Milesians,
and the boundaries of Caria, as far as Phocæa,4
and the river
According to Pherecydes, Miletus, Myus,6
Ephesus, on this coast, were formerly occupied by Carians;
the part of the coast next in order, as far as Phocæa, and
Chios, and Samos, of which Ancæus was king, were occupied
by Leleges, but both nations were expelled by the Ionians,
and took refuge in the remaining parts of Caria.
Pherecydes says that the leader of the Ionian, which was
posterior to the Æolian migration, was Androclus, a legitimate son of Codrus king of the Athenians, and that he was
the founder of Ephesus, hence it was that it became the seat
of the royal palace of the Ionian princes. Even at present
the descendants of that race are called kings, and receive certain honours, as the chief seat at the public games, a purple
robe as a symbol of royal descent, a staff instead of a sceptre,
and the superintendence of the sacrifices in honour of the
Neleus, of a Pylian family, founded Miletus. The Messenians and Pylians pretend that there is some affinity between
them; in reference to which later poets say that even Nestor
was a Messenian, and that many Pylians accompanied Melanthus, the father of Codrus, to Athens, and that all this
people sent out the colony in common with the Ionians. There
is also to be seen on the promontory Poseidium an altar erected by Neleus.
Myus was founded by Cydrelus, a spurious son of Codrus;
by Andropompus, who took possession of a place
called Artis; Colophon by Andræmon, a Pylian, as Mimnermus mentions in his poem of Nanno;8
Priene by Æpytus,
son of Neleus; and afterwards by Philotas, who brought a
colony from Thebes; Teos by Athamas, its first founder,
whence Anacreon calls the city Athamantis, but at the time
of the Ionian migration of the colony it received settlers from
Nauclus, a spurious son of Codrus, and after this from Apœcus
and Damasus, who were Athenians, and from Geres, a Bœotian; Erythræ was founded by Cnopus, who also was a spu-
rious son of Codrus; Phocæa by Athenians, who accompanied
Philogenes; Clazomenæ by Paralus; Chios by Egertius, who
brought with him a mixed body of colonists; Samos by Tembrion, and afterwards by Procles.
These are the twelve Ionian cities. At a subsequent
period Smyrna also was added to the Ionian association at
the instance of the Ephesians, for anciently they inhabited the
same city, at which time Ephesus was called Smyrna. Callinus somewhere gives it this name, and calls the Ephesians
Smyrnæans in the address to Jupiter:
“‘And pity the Smyrnæans;’”
and in another passage,
“‘remember now, if ever, the beautiful thighs of the oxen [which the
Smyrnæans burnt in sacrifice].’”
Smyrna was an Amazon, who got possession of Ephesus;
from her the inhabitants and the city had their name, in the
same manner as some Ephesians were called Sisyrbitæ from
Sisyrba; and a certain spot in Ephesus was called Smyrna,
as Hipponax testifies:
“‘He lived in Smyrna, at the back of the city between Tracheia and Lepre Acta.’”
The mountain Prion was called Lepre Acta; it overhangs the
present city, and has on it a portion of the wall. Even now
the farms at the back of the Prion retain the name in the
term Opistholepria. The country along the foot of the mountain about Coressus was called Tracheia. The city was anciently built about the Athenaeum, which is now beyond the
city, at the (fountain) Hypelæus. Smyrna therefore was situated near the present gymnasium, at the back of the present
city, but between Tracheia and Lepre Acta. The Smyrnæans, upon quitting the Ephesians, marched to the place where
Smyrna now stood, and which was in the possession of Leleges. They expelled these people and founded the ancient
Smyrna, which is distant from the present city about 20 stadia.
They were themselves afterwards expelled by Æolians, and
took refuge at Colophon; they then returned with a body of
men from the latter place, and recovered their own city,
Smyrna. Mimnermus relates this in his poem of Nanno, and
says of Smyrna, that it was always a subject of contention;
“‘after leaving Pylus, the lofty city of Neleus, we came in our voyage to
the long wished-for Asia, and settled at Colophon, and hastening thence
from the river Astëeis, by the will of the gods we took Æolian Smyrna.’”
So much then on this subject.
We must, however, again describe each place in particular,
beginning with the principal cities, from which the first settlements originated, I mean Miletus and Ephesus, for these
are superior to all others, and the most celebrated.
Next after the Poseidium of the Milesians, at the distance of 189
stadia from the sea-coast, is the oracle of Apollo
Didymeus among the Branchidæ. This, as well as the other
temples, except that at Ephesus, was burnt by the order of
The Branchidæ delivered up the treasures of the
god to the Persian king, and accompanied him in his flight, in
order to avoid the punishment of sacrilege and treachery.
The Milesians afterwards built a temple, which exceeded
in size all others, but it remained without a roof on account
of its magnitude. The circuit of the sacred enclosure contained within it a village with a magnificent grove, which also
extended beyond it; other sacred enclosures contain the oracle, and what belongs to the worship of the god.
Here is laid the scene of the fable of Branchus, and Apollo's
love for him. The temple is adorned with the most costly
offerings, the productions of ancient art.
Thence to the city the journey is not long either by land
Ephorus relates that Miletus was first founded and fortified by the Cretans on the spot above the sea-coast where
at present the ancient Miletus is situated, and that Sarpedon
conducted thither settlers from the Miletus in Crete,12
it the same name; that Leleges were the former occupiers of
the country, and that afterwards Neleus built the present city.
The present city has four harbours, one of which will admit a fleet of ships.13
The citizens have achieved many great
deeds, but the most important is the number of colonies which
they established. The whole Euxine, for instance, and the
Propontis, and many other places, are peopled with their
Anaximenes of Lampsacus says, that the Milesians colonized
both the island Icarus and Lerus, and Limnæ on the Hellespont, in the Chersonesus; in Asia, Abydus, Arisba, and
Pæsus; on the island of the Cyziceni, Artace and Cyzicus;
in the interior of the Troad, Scepsis. We have mentioned, in
our particular description of places, other cities which this
writer has omitted.
Both the Milesians and Delians invoke Apollo Ulius, as
dispensing health and curing diseases; for οὔλειν14
is to be in
health, whence οὐλή15
a wound healed, and the phrase in Homer,16 οὖλέ τε καὶ μέγα χαῖοͅε,
‘health and good welcome;’ for
Apollo is a healer, and Artemis has her name from making
or sound. The sun, also, and moon are associated with these deities, since they are the causes of the
good qualities of the air; pestilential diseases, also, and sudden
death are attributed to these deities.
Illustrious persons, natives of Miletus, were Thales, one
of the seven wise men, the first person who introduced among
the Greeks physiology and mathematics; his disciple Anaximander, and Anaximenes the disciple of Anaximander.
Besides these, Hecatæus the historian;17
and of our time,
Æschines the orator, who was banished for having spoken
with two great freedom before Pompey the Great, and died
Miletus shut her gates against Alexander, and experienced
the misfortune of being taken by storm, which was also the fate
of Halicarnassus; long before this time it was captured by the
Persians. Callisthenes relates, that Phrynichus the tragic
writer was fined a thousand drachmæ by the Athenians for
composing a play entitled ‘The taking of Miletus by Darius.’
The island Lade lies close in front of Miletus, and small
islands about Tragææ,18
which afford a shelter for pirates.
Next follows the Gulf of Latmus, on which is situated
‘Heracleia under Latmus,’19
as it is called, a small town
with a shelter for vessels. It formerly had the same name as
the mountain above, which Hecatæus thinks was the same
as that called by the poet20
the mountain of the Phtheiri,
for he says that the mountain of the Phtheiri was situated
below Latmus; but some say that it was Grium, as being
parallel to Latmus, and extending from the Milesian territory towards the east, through Caria, as far as Euromus and
Chalcetores. However, the mountain rises up in sight of21
At a little distance further, after crossing a small river near
Latmus, there is seen in a cave the sepulchre of Endymion.
Then from Heracleia to Pyrrha, a small city, is about 100
stadia by sea, but a little more from Miletus to Heracleia, if
we include the winding of the bays.
From Miletus to Pyrrha, in a straight line by sea, is 30
stadia; so much longer is the journey by sailing near the
When we are speaking of celebrated places, the reader
must endure with patience the dryness of such geographical
From Pyrrha to the mouth of the Mæander are 50 stadia.
The ground about it is marshy and a swamp. In sailing up
the river in vessels rowed by oars to the distance of 30 stadia,
we come to Myus,22
one of the twelve Ionian cities, which, on
account of its diminished population, is now incorporated with
Miletus. Xerxes is said to have given this city to Themistocles to supply him with fish, Magnesia with bread, and
Lampsacus with wine.23
At four stadia from Myus is Thymbria, a Carian village,
near which is Aornum; this is a sacred cave called Charo-
nium, which emits destructive vapours. Above it is Magnesia24
on the Mæander, a colony of the Magnesians of Thessaly and Crete. We shall speak of it very soon.
After the mouths of the Mæander follows the shore of
Priene. Above it is Priene,25
and the mountain Mycale.26
which abounds with animals of the chace, and is covered with
forests. It is situated above the Samian territory, and forms
towards it, beyond the promontory Trogilium,27
a strait of
above 7 stadia in width. Priene is called by some writers
Cadme, because Philotus, its second founder, was a Bœotian.
Bias, one of the seven wise men, was a native of Priene, of
whom Hipponax uses this expression;
“‘More just in pleadings than Bias of Priene.’”
In front of Trogilium lies an island of the same name.
Thence, which is the nearest way, is a passage across to
Sunium of 1600 stadia. At the commencement of the voyage,
on the right hand are Samos, Icaria, and the Corsiæ islands;28
on the left, the Melantian rocks.29
The remainder of the
voyage lies through the middle of the Cyclades islands. The
promontory Trogilium itself may be considered as a foot of
the mountain Mycale. Close to Mycale is another mountain,
the Pactyas, belonging to the Ephesian territory, where the
From Trogilium to Samos are 40 stadia. Both this
and the harbour, which has a station for vessels, have a southern aspect. A great part of it is situated on a flat, and is
overflowed by the sea, but a part also rises towards the mountain which overhangs it. On the right hand, in sailing towards the city, is the Poseidium, a promontory, which forms
towards Mycale the strait of 7 stadia. It has upon it a
temple of Neptune. In front is a small island, Narthecis;
on the left, near the Heræum, is the suburb, and the river Imbrasus, and the Heræum, an ancient temple, and a large nave,
which at present is a repository for paintings. Besides the
great number of paintings in the Heræum, there are other
repositories and some small chapels, filled with works of
ancient art. The Hypæthrum also is full of the best statues.
Of these, three of colossal size, the work of Myron, stand
upon the same base. Antony took them all away, but Augustus Cæsar replaced two, the Minerva and the Hercules,
upon the same base. He transported the Jupiter to the
Capitol, having built a chapel for its reception.
The voyage round the island Sarnos is 600 stadia.30
Formerly, when the Carians inhabited it, it was called Parthenia, then Anthemus, then Melamphylus,31
either from the name of some native hero, or from some one
who conducted a colony thither from Ithaca and Cephallenia.
In it is a promontory looking towards Drepanum in Icaria,
which has the name of Ampelos, (the Vine,) but the whole
mountain, which spreads over the island, has the same name.
The island is not remarkable for good wine,32
islands around, as Chios, Lesbos, Cos, and almost all the adjacent continent, produce wines of the best kind. The Ephesian and the Metropolites are good wines, but the Mesogis,
the Tmolus, the Catacecaumene, Cnidos, Smyrna, and other
more obscure places, are distinguished for the excellence of
their wines, whether for gratification or dietetic purposes.
Samos is not very fortunate as regards the production of
wine, but in general it is fertile, as appears from its possession
being a subject of warlike contention, and from the language
of its panegyrists, who do not hesitate to apply to it the proverb,
“‘It produces even birds' milk,’”
as Menander somewhere says. This was the cause also of
the tyrannies established there, and of the enmity of the
The tyrannies were at their height in the time of Polycrates and his brother Syloson. The former was distinguished
for his good fortune, and the possession of such a degree of
power as made him master of the sea. It is related as an instance of his good fortune, that having purposely thrown into
the sea his ring, which was of great value both on account of
the stone and the engraving, a short time afterwards a
fisherman caught the fish which had swallowed it, and on
cutting the fish open, the ring was discovered. When the
king of Egypt was informed of this, he declared, it is said,
with a prophetic spirit, that Polycrates, who had been elevated
to such a height of prosperity, would soon end his life unfortunately; and this was actually the case, for he was taken by
the Persian satrap by stratagem, and crucified. Anacreon, the
lyric poet, was his contemporary, and all his poetry abounds
with the praises of Polycrates.
It is said that in his time Pythagoras, observing the growing tyranny, left the city, and travelled to Egypt and Babylon, with a view to acquire knowledge. On his return from
his travels, perceiving that the tyranny still prevailed, he set
sail for Italy, and there passed the remainder of his life.
So much respecting Polycrates.
Syloson was left by his brother in a private station.
But he made a present to Darius, son of Hystaspes, of a robe
which the latter saw him wearing, and very much desired to
possess. Darius was not king at this time, but when he became king, Polycrates received as a compensation the tyranny
of Samos. He governed with so much severity, that the city
was depopulated, which gave occasion to the proverb,
“‘By the pleasure of Syloson there is room enough.’”
The Athenians formerly sent Pericles their general, and
with him Sophocles the poet, who harassed with the evils of
a siege the refractory Samians. Afterwards33
they sent thither
a colony of two thousand citizens, among whom was Neocles
the father of Epicurus, and, according to report, a schoolmaster. It is said, that Epicurus was educated here and at
Teos, and was admitted among the ephebi at Athens, having
as his comrade in that class Menander the comic poet. Creophylus was a native of Samos,34
who, it is said, once entertained Homer as his guest, and received, in return, his poem
entitled ‘The taking of Œchalia.’ Callimachus, on the contrary, intimates in an epigram that it was the composition of
Creophylus, but ascribed to Homer on account of the story of
his hospitable entertainment by Creophylus:
“‘I am the work of the Samian, who once entertained in his house,
as a guest, the divine Homer. I grieve for the sufferings of Eurytus, and
mourn for the yellow-haired Ioleia. I am called Homer's writing. O
Jupiter, how glorious this for Creophylus.’
Some say that he was Homer's master; according to others,
it was not Creophylus, but Aristeas of Proconnesus.
The island of Icaria, from which the Icarian Sea has
its name, is near Samos. The island has its name from Icarus,
the son of Dædalus, who, it is said, having accompanied his
father in his flight, when both of them, furnished with wings,
set out from Crete, fell on that island, unable to sustain his
flight. He had mounted too near the sun, and the wings dropped
off on the melting of the wax [with which they were fastened].
The whole island is 300 stadia in circumference; it has no
harbours, but only anchorages, the best of which is called
Histi. A promontory stretches towards the west. There is
also on the island a temple of Diana, called Tauropolium, and
a small town Œnoë; and another, Dracanum,35
of the same
name as the promontory on which it stands, with an anchorage for vessels. The promontory is distant from the promontory of the Samians, called Cantharius, 80 stadia, which is the
shortest passage from one to the other. The Samians occupy
it at present in its depopulated state, chiefly for the sake of
pasture which it affords for cattle.
Next to the Samian strait at Mycale, on the right
hand on the voyage to Ephesus, is the sea-coast of the Ephesians, a part of which even the Samians possess. First on
the sea-coast is the Panionium,36
distant from the sea three
stadia, where the Panionia, a common festival of the Ionians,
is celebrated, and a sacrifice is performed in honour of the
Heliconian Neptune. The priests are Prienians. We have
spoken of them in the description of Peloponnesus.
Then follows Neapolis, which formerly belonged to the
Ephesians, but now belongs to the Samians, having exchanged Marathesium37
for it, the more distant for the nearer
place. Next is Pygela, a small town, containing a temple of
Diana Munychia. It was founded by Agamemnon, and colonized
by some of his soldiers, who had a disease in the buttocks, and
were called Pygalgeis; as they laboured under this complaint,
they settled there, and the town had the appropriate name of
Next is a harbour called Panormus, with a temple of the
Ephesian Diana; then the city.
On the same coast, at a little distance from the sea, is Ortygia, a fine wood with trees of all kinds, but the cypress in
the greatest abundance. Through this wood flows the river
Cenchrius, in which Latona is said to have bathed after the
birth of her child. For here is laid the scene of the birth of
the child, the cares of the nurse Ortygia, the cave in which
the birth took place, the neighbouring olive tree under which
the goddess first reposed when the pains of child-birth had
Above the wood is the mountain Solmissus, where, it is
said, the Curetes stationed themselves, and with the noise
of their arms perplexed and terrified Juno, who was enviously watching in secret the delivery of Latona, who was
thus assisted in concealing the birth of the child.
There are many temples in the place, some of which are
ancient, others of later times; in the former are ancient
statues; in the latter are works of Scopas, Latona holding a
sceptre, and Ortygia standing by her with a child in each arm.
A convention and festival are celebrated there every year.
It is the custom for young men to vie with each other, particularly in the splendour of their convivial entertainments.
The body of Curetes celebrate their Symposia at the same
time, and perform certain mystic sacrifices.
The city of Ephesus was inhabited both by Carians and
Leleges. After Androclus had expelled the greatest part of
the inhabitants, he settled his companions about the Athenæum,
and the Hypelæum, and in the mountainous tract at the foot
of the Coressus. It was thus inhabited till the time of Crœsus. Afterwards, the inhabitants descended from the mountainous district, and settled about the present temple, and
continued there to the time of Alexander. Then Lysimachus
built a wall round the present temple, and, perceiving the in-
habitants unwilling to remove thither, took advantage of a
heavy storm of rain which he saw approaching, and obstructed
the drains so as to inundate the city, and the inhabitants were
glad to leave it for another place.
He called the city Arsinoë, after the name of his wife, but
the old name prevailed. A body of elders was enrolled, with
whom were associated persons called Epicleti, who administered all the affairs of the city.
was the first architect of the temple of
Diana; another afterwards enlarged it, but when Herostratus
set fire to it,40
the citizens constructed one more magnificent.
They collected for this purpose the ornaments of the women,
contributions from private property, and the money arising
from the sale of pillars of the former temple. Evidence of
these things is to be found in the decrees of that time. Artemidorus says, that Timæus of Tauromenium, in consequence of
his ignorance of these decrees, and being otherwise a calumniator and detractor, (whence he had the name of Epitimæus,
or Reviler,) avers that the Ephesians restored the temple by
means of the treasure deposited there by the Persians. But
at that time no treasure was deposited, and if any had been
deposited there, it must have been consumed together with the
temple: after the conflagration, when the roof was destroyed,
who would wish to have a deposit lying there, with the sacred
enclosure exposed to the air?
Besides, Artemidorus says, that Alexander promised to defray the expense of its restoration, both what had been and
what would be incurred, on condition that the work should be
attributed to him in the inscription, but the Ephesians refused to accede to this ; much less, then, would they be disposed to acquire fame by sacrilege and spoliation. He praises
also the reply of an Ephesian to the king, ‘that it was not fit
that a god should provide temples in honour of gods.’
After the completion of the temple, which, he says, was
the work of Cheirocrates (the same person who built Alexandria, and also promised Alexander that he would form
Mount Athos into a statue of him, which should represent him
as pouring a libation into a dish out of an ewer; that he would
build two cities, one on the right hand of the mountain, and
another on the left, and a river should flow out of the dish
from one to the other,)41
—after the completion of the temple,
he says that the multitude of other sacred offerings were
purchased by the Ephesians, at the value set on them by
artificers, and that the altar was almost entirely full of the
works of Praxiteles. They showed us also some of the performances of Thraso, namely, the Hecatesium, a Penelope,42
and the old woman Eurycleia.
The priests were eunuchs, who were called Megabyzi. It
was the practice to send to various places for persons worthy
of this office, and they were held in high honour. They were
obliged to appoint virgins as their colleagues in their priesthood. At present some of their rites and customs are observed,
and some are neglected.
The temple was formerly, and is at present, a place of refuge, but the limits of the sanctity of this asylum have been
frequently altered; Alexander extended them to the distance
of a stadium. Mithridates discharged an arrow from the
angle of the roof, and supposed that it fell a little beyond the
distance of a stadium. Antonius doubled this distance, and
included within the range of the sanctuary a certain portion
of the city. This was attended with much evil, as it placed
the city in the power of criminals and malefactors. On this
account Augustus Cesar abolished the privilege.
The city has an arsenal and a harbour. The entrance
of the harbour was made narrow, by order of the king Attalus
Philadelphus, who, together with the persons that constructed
it, was disappointed at the result. The harbour was formerly
shallow, on account of the embankment of earth accumulated
by the Caÿster; but the king, supposing that there would be
deep water for the entrance of large vessels of burden, if a
mole were thrown up before the mouth of the river, which
was very wide, gave orders for the construction of a mole ; but
the contrary effect took place, for the mud, being confined
within the harbour, made the whole of it shallow to the
mouth. Before the construction of the mole, the flow and ebb
of the sea cleared the mud away entirely, by forcing it outwards.
Such then is the nature of the harbour.
The city, by the advantages which it affords, daily improves, and is the largest mart in Asia within the Taurus.
Among illustrious persons in ancient times natives of
Ephesus were Heracleitus, surnamed Scoteinus, or the Obscure, and Hermodorus, of whom Heracleitus himself says:
“‘The Ephesians, youths and all, deserve hanging, for expelling Hermodorus, an honest citizen,43
a citizen distinguished for his virtues, and saying, let there be no such amongst us; if there be, let it be in another place
and among other people.’
Hermodorus seems to have compiled laws for the Romans.
Hipponax the poet was an Ephesian, and the painters Parrhasius and Apelles.
In more recent times was Alexander the orator, surnamed
Lychnus, or the Lamp;44
he was an administrator of state
affairs, a writer of history, and left behind him poems which
contain a description of the heavenly phenomena and a geographical account of the continents, each of which forms the
subject of a distinct poem.
Next to the mouth of the Caÿster is a lake called
Selinusia, formed by the overflowing of the sea. It is succeeded by another, which communicates with this. They afford
a large revenue, of which the kings, although it was sacred,
deprived the goddess, but the Romans restored it; then the
tax-gatherers seized upon the tribute by force, and converted
it to their own use. Artemidorus, who was sent on an embassy to Rome, as he says, recovered possession of the lakes for
the goddess, and also of the territory of Heracleotis, which was
on the point of separating from Ephesus, by proceeding in a
suit at Rome. In return for these services, the city erected in
the temple to his honour a statue of gold.
In the most retired part of the lake is a temple of a king,
built, it is said, by Agamemnon.
Next follows the mountain Gallesius, and Colophon,
an Ionian city, in front of which is the grove of Apollo Clarius,
where was once an ancient oracle.45
It is said that the prophet
Calchas came hither on foot, on his return from Troy with
Amphilochus, the son of Amphiaraus, and that meeting at
Clarus with a prophet superior to himself, Mopsus, the son of
Mantus, the daughter of Teiresias, he died of vexation.
Hesiod relates the fable somewhat in this manner: Calchas
propounds to Mopsus something of this kind:
“‘I am surprised to see how large a quantity of figs there is on this
small tree; can you tell the number?’
“‘There are ten thousand; they will measure a medimnus, and there is
one over, which you cannot comprehend.’”
Thus he spoke; the number and measure were exact. Then
Calchas closed his eyes in the sleep of death.
But Pherecydes says, that Calchas proposed a question respecting a pregnant sow, and asked how many young she
had; the other answered, ‘three, one of which is a sow.’
Upon his giving the true answer, Calchas died of vexation.
According to others, Calchas propounded the question of the
sow, and Mopsus that of the fig-tree; that Mopsus returned
the true answer, and that Calchas was mistaken, who died of
vexation, according to some oracular prophecy.
Sophocles, in his ‘Helen Claimed,’ says that he was destined by fate to die when he should meet with a prophet
superior to himself. But this writer transfers the scene of
the rivalry, and of the death of Calchas, to Cilicia.
These are ancient traditions.
The Colophonians once possessed a considerable armament, consisting both of ships and of cavalry. In the latter
they were so much superior to other nations, that in any obstinate engagement, on whichever side the Colophonian horse were
auxiliaries, they decided it; whence came the proverb, ‘he
put the Colophon to it,’ when a person brought any affair to a
Among some of the remarkable persons born at Colophon
were Mimnermus, a flute-player and an elegiac poet; Xenophanes, the natural philosopher, who composed Silli in verse.
Pindar mentions one Polymnastus also, a Colophonian, as distinguished for his skill in music:
“‘Thou knowest the celebrated strains of Polymnastus, the Colophonian:’”
and some writers affirm that Homer was of that city. The
voyage from Ephesus in a straight line is 70 stadia, and including the winding of the bays, 120.
Next to Colophon is the mountain Coracium, and a
small island sacred to Artemis, to which it is believed that
the hinds swim across to bring forth their young.
Then follows Lebedos,47
distant from Colophon 120 stadia.
This is the place of meeting and residence48
of the Dionysiac
artists (who travel about) Ionia as far as the Hellespont. In
Ionia a general assembly is held, and games are celebrated every
year in honour of Bacchus. These artists formerly inhabited
a city of the Ionians, next in order after Colophon, but on
the breaking out of a sedition they took refuge at Ephesus; and
when Attalus settled them at Myonnesus,50
between Teos and
Lebedos, the Teians sent a deputation to request the Romans
not to permit Myonnesus to be fortified, as it would endanger
their safety. They migrated to Lebedos, and the Lebedians
were glad to receive them, on account of their own scanty
Teos is distant from Lebedos 120 stadia. Between these
two places is the island Aspis,51
which some writers call Arcon-
nesus. Myonnesus is situated upon high ground resembling
Teos is situated upon a peninsula, and has a port.
Anacreon, the lyric poet, was a native of this place; in his
time, the Teians, unable to endure the insults and injuries
of the Persians, abandoned Teos, and removed to Abdera,
whence originated the verse—
“‘Abdera, the beautiful colony of the Teians.’”
Some of them returned in after-times to their own country.
We have said that Apellicon was of Teos, and Hecatæus also,
There is another port to the north, at the distance of 30
stadia from the city, Gerrhæïdæ.52
Next follows Chalcideis, and the isthmus of the peninsula53
of the Teians and Erythræans; the latter inhabit the
interior of the isthmus. The Teians and Clazomenians are
situated on the isthmus itself. The Teians occupy the southern side of the isthmus, namely, Chalcideis;54
the northern side, whence they are contiguous to the Erythræan district. At the commencement of the isthmus is Hypocremnus, having on this side the Erythræan, and on the other,
the Clazomenian territory. Above Chalcideis is a grove, dedicated to Alexander, the son of Philip, and a festival called
Alexandreia is proclaimed and celebrated there by the common
body of the Ionians.
The passage across the isthmus from the Alexandrine grove
and Chalcideis, as far as the Hypocremnus, is 50 stadia (150?).
The circuit round by sea is more than 1000 stadia. Somewhere about the middle of the voyage is Erythræ,55
city, with a port, having in front four small islands, called
Hippoi (the Horses).
But before we come to Erythræ, the first place we meet
with is Eræ,56
a small city belonging to the Teians.
Next is Corycus, a lofty mountain; and below it, Casystes,
then another, called the port of Erythræ, and afterwards many others.
It is said that the whole sea-coast along the Corycus was
the haunt of pirates, who were called Corycæans, and who had
contrived a new mode of attacking vessels. They dispersed
themselves among the ports, and went among the merchants
who had just arrived, and listened to their conversation respecting the freight of their ships, and the places whither
they were bound. The pirates then collected together, attacked the merchants at sea, and plundered the vessels. Hence
all inquisitive persons and those who listen to private and
secret conversation we call Corycæans, and say proverbially,
“‘The Corycæan must have overheard it,’”
when any one thinks that he has done or said anything not
to be divulged, but is betrayed by spies or persons anxious to
be informed of what does not concern them.
Next to Corycus is Halonnesus, a small island, then the
a promontory of the Erythræan territory, situated
close to Poseidium, belonging to the Chians, and forming a
strait of about 60 stadia in width. Between Erythræ and
Hypocremnus is Mimas,59
a lofty mountain, abounding with
beasts of chase, and well wooded. Then follows Cybelia, a
village, and a promontory called Melæna,60
(or Black,) which
has a quarry whence millstones are obtained.
Erythræ was the native place of the Sibyl, an ancient
inspired prophetess. In the time of Alexander there was another Sibyl, who was also a prophetess, whose name was
Athenais, a native of the same city; and in our age there was
Heracleides the Herophilian physician, a native of Erythræ, a
fellow-student of Apollonius surnamed Mus.
The coasting circumnavigation of Chios is 900 stadia.
It has a city61
with a good port, and a station for eighty vessels.
In the voyage round the island, a person sailing from the city,
with the island on his right hand, first meets with Poseidium,62
a deep harbour, and a temple of Apollo, and a
grove of palm trees; then Notium, a part of the coast affording a shelter for vessels; next Laïus,64
which is also a place of
shelter for vessels; hence to the city is an isthmus of 60 stadia.
The circumnavigation is 360 stadia, as I have before described
it. Next, the promontory Melæna,65
opposite to which is Psyra,66
an island distant from the promontory 50 stadia, lofty, with a
city of the same name. The island is 40 stadia in circumference. Next is the rugged tract, Ariusia, without harbours,
about 30 stadia in extent. It produces the best of the Grecian
wines. Then follows Pelinæum,67
the highest mountain in the
island. In the island is a marble quarry.
Among illustrious natives of Chios were Ion68
writer, Theopompus the historian, and Theocritus the sophist.
The two latter persons were opposed to each other in the
political parties in the state. The Chians claim Homer as a
native of their country, alleging as a proof the Homeridæ,
as they are called, descendants from his family, whom Pindar
“‘Whence also the Homeridæ, the chanters of the rhapsodies, most frequently begin their song.’69
The Chians once possessed a naval force, and aspired to the
sovereignty of the sea, and to liberty.70
From Chios to Lesbos is a voyage of about 400 stadia, with
a south wind.
After the Hypocremnus is Chytrium, a place where
formerly stood; then the present city, having in front eight small islands, the land of which is cultivated by
Anaxagoras, the natural philosopher, was a distinguished
Clazomenian; he was a disciple of Anaximenes the Milesian,
and master of Archelaus the natural philosopher, and of Euripides the poet.
Next is a temple of Apollo, and hot springs, the bay of
Smyrna, and the city Smyrna.
Next is another bay, on which is situated the ancient
Smyrna, at the distance of 20 stadia from the present city.
After Smyrna had been razed by the Lydians, the inhabitants
continued for about four hundred years to live in villages. It
was then restored by Antigonus, and afterwards by Lysimachus,
and at present it is the most beautiful city in Ionia.
One portion of Smyrna is built up on a hill, but the greater
part is in the plain near the harbour, the Metroum, and the
Gymnasium. The division of the streets is excellent, and as
nearly as possible in straight lines. There are paved roads,
large quadrangular porticos, both on a level with the ground
and with an upper story.
There is also a library, and the Homereium, a quadrangular
portico, which has a temple of Homer and a statue. For the
Smyrnæans, above all others, urge the claims of their city to be
the birth-place of Homer, and they have a sort of brass money,
The river Meles flows near the walls. Besides other conveniences with which the city is furnished, there is a close
There is one, and not a trifling, defect in the work of the
architects, that when they paved the roads, they did not make
drains beneath them; the filth consequently lies on the surface, and, during rains particularly, the receptacles of the filth
spread it over the streets.
It was here that Dolabella besieged and slew Trebonius, one
of the murderers of divus Cæsar; he also destroyed many parts
of the city.
Next to Smyrna is Leucæ,73
a small city, which Aris-
tonicus caused to revolt, after the death of Attalus, the son of
under pretence of being descended from the royal
family, but with the intention of usurping the kingdom. He
was, however, defeated in a naval engagement by the Ephesians,
near the Cumæan district, and expelled. But he went into
the interior of the country, and quickly collected together a
multitude of needy people and slaves, who were induced to
follow him by the hope of obtaining their freedom, whom he
called Heliopolitæ. He first surprised Thyateira,75
got possession of Apollonis, and had an intention of making
himself master of other fortresses, but he did not maintain his
ground long. The cities sent immediately a large body of
troops against him, and were supported by Nicomedes the
Bithynian and the kings of Cappadocia. Afterwards five
deputies of the Romans came, then an army, and the consul
Publius Crassus. These were followed by M. Perperna, who
took Aristonicus prisoner, sent him to Rome, and thus put an
end to the war. Aristonicus died in prison; Perperna died
of some disease, and Crassus fell near Leucæ, in a skirmish
with some people who had attacked him from an ambuscade.
Manius Aquillius the consul came afterwards, with ten lieutenants; he regulated the affairs of the province, and established
that form of government which continues at present.
After Leucæ follows Phocæa,76
situated on a bay. I have
mentioned this place in the description of Massalia.77
follow the confines of the Ionians and the Æolians. I have
already spoken of these.78
In the interior of the Ionian maritime territory there remain to be described the places about the road leading from
Ephesus, as far as Antioch79
and the Mæander.
This tract is occupied by a mixed population of Lydians,
Carians, and Greeks.
The first place after Ephesus is Magnesia, an Æolian
city, and called Magnesia on the Mæander, for it is situated
near it; but it is still nearer the Lethæus, which discharges
itself into the Mæander. It has its source in Pactyes, a mountain in the Ephesian district. There is another Lethæus in
Gortyne, a third near Tricca, where Asclepius is said to have
been born, and the fourth among the Hesperitæ Libyans.80
Magnesia lies in a plain, near a mountain called Thorax,81
on which it is said Daphitas the grammarian was crucified,
for reviling the kings in a distich—
“‘O slaves, with backs purpled with stripes, filings of the gold of Lysimachus, you are the kings of Lydia and Phrygia.’”
An oracle is said to have warned Daphitas to beware of the
The Magnesians appear to be the descendants of Delphians who inhabited the Didymæan mountains in Thessaly,
and of whom Hesiod says,
“‘or, as the chaste virgin, who inhabits the sacred Didymæan hills in the
plain of Dotium, opposite Amyrus, abounding with vines, and bathes her
feet in the lake Bœbias—’”
At Magnesia also was the temple of Dindymene, the mother of the gods. Her priestess, according to some writers,
was the daughter, according to others, the wife, of Themistocles. At present there is no temple, because the city has been
transferred to another place. In the present city is the temple of Artemis Leucophryene, which in the size of the nave
and in the number of sacred offerings is inferior to the temple
at Ephesus; but, in the fine proportion and the skill exhibited
in the structure of the enclosure, it greatly surpasses the
Ephesian temple; in size it is superior to all the temples in
Asia, except that at Ephesus and that at Didymi.
Anciently the Magnetes were utterly extirpated by Treres,
a Cimmerian tribe, who for a long period made successful inroads. Subsequently Ephesians got possession of the place.83
Callinus speaks of the Magnetes as still in a flourishing state,
and successful in the war against the Ephesians. But Ar-
chilochus seems to have been acquainted with the calamities
which had befallen them:
“‘bewail the misfortunes of the Thasians, not of the Magnetes;’”
whence we may conjecture that Archilochus was posterior to
Callinus. Yet Callinus mentions some other earlier inroad of
the Cimmerians, when he says—
“‘and now the army of the daring Cimmerians is advancing,’”
where he is speaking of the capture of Sardis.
Among the illustrious natives of Magnesia were Hegesias the orator, who first introduced the Asiatic fervour, as it
was called, and corrupted the established Attic style of eloquence; Simon (Simus?) the lyric poet, who also corrupted
the system and plan of former lyric poets, by introducing the
Simodia; it was still more corrupted by the Lysiodi and Magodi;84
Cleomachus the pugilist, who was enamoured of a certain cinædus, and a female servant, who was maintained by
the cinædus, imitated the sort of dialect and the manners of
the cinædi. Sotades was the first person that employed the
language of the cinædi, and he was followed by Alexander
the Ætolian; but these were only prose writers. Lysis added
verse, but this had been done before his time by Simus.
The theatres had raised the reputation of Anaxenor, the
player on the cithara, but Antony elevated him as high as
possible, by appointing him receiver of the tribute from four
cities, and by giving him a guard of soldiers for the protection
of his person. His native country also augmented his dignity,
by investing him with the sacred purple of Jupiter Sosipolis,
as is represented in the painted figure in the forum. There
is also in the theatre a figure in brass, with this inscription:
“‘It is truly delightful to listen to a minstrel such as he is, whose voice is
like that of the gods.’85
The artist who engraved the words was inattentive to the
space which they would occupy, and omitted the last letter of
the second verse, αυδηι,
(voice,) the breadth of the base not
being large enough to allow its insertion; this afforded an
occasion of accusing the citizens of ignorance, on account of
the ambiguity of the inscription; for it is not clear whether
the nominative αυδη,
or the dative αυδηι,
is to be understood, for many persons write the dative cases without the ι,
and reject the usage, as not founded on any natural reason.
After Magnesia is the road to Tralles;86
on the left hand Mesogis,87
and on the right hand, and from
the road itself, the plain of the Mæander, which is occupied in
common by Lydians, Carians, Ionians, Milesians, Mysians,
and the Æolians of Magnesia.
The character of the sites of places is the same even as far
The city of Tralles is built upon ground in the shape somewhat of a trapezium. It has a citadel strongly fortified, and
the places around are well defended. It is as well peopled as
any of the cities in Asia, and its inhabitants are wealthy;
some of them constantly occupy chief stations in the province,
and are called Asiarchs. Among the latter was Pythodorus,
originally a native of Nysa; but, induced by the celebrity of
the place, he migrated hither. He was one of the few friends
of Pompey who were fortunate. His wealth was kingly,
and consisted of more than two thousand talents, which he
redeemed when it was confiscated by divus Cæsar, on account
of his attachment to Pompey, and left it undiminished to
his children. Pythodoris, who is at present queen in Pontus,
and whom we have mentioned before. is his daughter. Pythodorus flourished in our times, and also Menodorus, an eloquent man, and a person of dignified and grave demeanour;
he was priest of Jupiter Larisæus. He was circumvented by
the adherents of Domitius Ænobarbus, who, on the credit of
informers, put him to death, for attempting, as was supposed,
the revolt of his fleet.
Tralles produced also celebrated orators, Dionysocles, and
after him Damasus, surnamed Scombrus.
It is said to have been founded by Argives and a body of
from whom it had its name. It was governed for a short time by tyrants, sons of Cratippus, about
the period of the Mithridatic war.
Nysa is situated near the Mesogis, resting for the most
part against the mountain. It is as it were a double town,
for a kind of torrent watercourse divides it into two parts,
and forms a valley, one part of which has a bridge over it,
connecting the two towns; the other is adorned with an
amphitheatre; underneath it is a passage through which the
waters of the torrents flow out of sight.
Near the theatre are situated90
two heights; below one lies
the gymnasium for the young men; below the other is the
forum, and a place of exercise for older persons. To the
south below the city lies the plain, as at Tralles.
On the road between Tralles and Nysa is a village of
the Nysæans, not far from the city Acharaca, in which is the
Plutonium, to which is attached a large grove, a temple of
Pluto and Proserpine, and the Charonium, a cave which
overhangs the grove, and possesses some singular physical
properties. The sick, it is said, who have confidence in the
cures performed by these deities, resort thither, and live in
the village near the cave, among experienced priests, who
sleep at night in the open air, on behoof of the sick, and direct
the modes of cure by their dreams. The priests invoke the
gods to cure the sick, and frequently take them into the
cave, where, as in a den, they are placed to remain in
quiet without food for several days. Sometimes the sick
themselves observe their own dreams, but apply to these persons, in their character of priests and guardians of the mysteries, to interpret them, and to counsel what is to be done.
To others the place is interdicted and fatal.
An annual festival, to which there is a general resort, is
celebrated at Acharaca, and at that time particularly are to be
seen and heard those who frequent it, conversing about cures
performed there. During this feast the young men of the
gymnasium and the ephebi, naked and anointed with oil,91
carry off a bull by stealth at midnight, and hurry it away into
the cave. It is then let loose, and after proceeding a short
distance falls down and expires.
Thirty stadia from Nysa, as you cross the Mesogis to-words the southern parts of Mount Tmolus,92
is a place called
Leimon, or the Meadow, to which the Nysæans and all the
people around repair when they celebrate a festival. Not
far from this plain is an aperture in the ground, sacred to the
same deities, which aperture is said to extend as far as Acharaca. They say that the poet mentions this meadow, in the
“‘On the Asian mead,’93
and they show a temple dedicated to two heroes, Caÿstrius
and Asius, and the Caÿster flowing near it.
Historians relate that three brothers, Athymbrus,
Athymbradus, and Hydrelus, coming hither from Lacedæmon, founded (three?) cities, to which they gave their
own names; that the population of these towns afterwards
declined, but that out of these jointly Nysa was peopled. The
Nysæans at present regard Athymbrus as their founder.
Beyond the Mæander and in the neighbourhood are
considerable settlements, Coscinia94
and Orthosia, and on this
side the river, Briula, Mastaura,95
Acharaca, and above the
city on the mountain, Aroma; the letter o
is shortened in the
pronunciation. From this latter place is obtained the Aromeus, the best Mesogitian wine.
Among illustrious natives of Nysa were Apollonius the
Stoic philosopher, the most eminent of the disciples of Panætius, and of Menecrates, the disciple of Aristarchus; Aristodemus, the son of Menecrates, whom, when I was a very
young man, I heard lecturing on philosophy, in extreme old
age, at Nysa; Sostratus, the brother of Aristodemus, and
another Aristodemus, his cousin, the master of Pompey the
Great, were distinguished grammarians. My master taught
rhetoric also at Rhodes, and in his own country he had two
schools; in the morning he taught rhetoric, in the evening grammar. When he superintended the education of the
children of Pompey at Rome, he was satisfied with teaching
a school of grammar.
THE places beyond the Mæander, which remain to be
described, belong to the Carians. The Carians here are not
intermixed with Lydians, but occupy the whole country by
themselves, if we except a small portion of the sea-coast, of
which the Milesians and Mysians have taken possession.
begins on the sea-coast opposite to Rhodes, and ends
belonging to the Milesians. In the interior
are the extremities of Taurus, which extend as far as the
Mæander. For the mountains situated above the Chelidonian islands,99
as they are called, which lie in front of the
confines of Pamphylia and Lycia, are, it is said, the beginning of the Taurus; for the Taurus has there some elevation,
and indeed a mountainous ridge of Taurus separates the
whole of Lycia towards the exterior and the southern part
from Cibyra and its district, as far as the country opposite to
Rhodes. Even there a mountainous tract is continued; it is,
however, much lower in height, and is not considered as any
longer belonging to Taurus, nor is there the distinction of
parts lying within and parts lying without the Taurus, on account of the eminences and depressions being scattered about
through the whole country both in breadth and length, and
not presenting anything like a separation-wall.
The whole voyage along the coast, including the winding
of the bays, is 4900 stadia, and that along the country opposite to Rhodus 1500 stadia.
The beginning of this tract is Dædala,100
and ends at the mountain Phœnix,101
as it is called, both of
which belong to the Rhodian territory. In front, at the distance of 120 stadia from Rhodes, lies Eleussa.102
In sailing from
Dædala towards the west in a straight line along Cilicia,
Pamphylia, and Lycia, in the midway is a bay called Glaucus,
with good harbours; then is the promontory Artemisium, and
a temple; next, the grove sacred to Latona; above this, and at
the distance of 60 stadia, is Calynda, a city; then Caunus,103
a deep river near it, the Calbis,104
which may be entered by
vessels; between these is Pisilis.
The city Caunus has a naval arsenal and a close harbour. Above the city upon a height is Imbrus, a stronghold.
Although the country is fertile, yet the city is allowed by all
to be unhealthy in summer, on account of the heat, and in
autumn, from the abundance of fruits.
Stories of the following kind are related respecting the city.
Stratonicus, the player on the cithara, seeing the Caunians
somewhat dark and yellow,105
said that this was what the poet
meant in the line,
“‘As are the leaves, so is the race of men.’106
When he was accused of ridiculing the unhealthiness of the
city, he answered, ‘Can I be so bold as to call that city unhealthy, where even the dead walk about?’
The Caunians once revolted from the Rhodians, but, by a
decision of the Romans, they were received again by the
Rhodians into favour. There is in existence an oration of
Molo against the Caunians.
It is said that they speak the same language as the Carians,
that they came from Crete, and retained their own laws and
Next is Physcus,108
a small town; it has a port and a
grove sacred to Latona: then Loryma, a rugged line of seacoast, and a mountain, the highest of any in that quarter, on
the summit of which is Phoenix, a stronghold, of the same
name as the mountain. In front is the island Eleussa, at the
distance of 4 stadia. Its circumference is about 8 stadia.
The city of the Rhodians is on the eastern promontory.
With regard to harbours, roads, walls, and other buildings, it
so much surpasses other cities, that we know of none equal,
much less superior to it.
Their political constitution and laws were excellent, and
the care admirable with which they administered affairs of
state generally, and particularly those relative to their marine.
Hence being for a long period masters of the sea, they put
an end to piracy, and became allies of the Romans, and of
those kings who were well affected to the Romans and the
Greeks; hence also the city was suffered to preserve her independence, and was embellished with many votive offerings.
These are distributed in various places, but the greatest part
of them are deposited in the Dionysium and in the gymnasium. The most remarkable is the Colossus of the Sun, which,
the author of the iambics says, was
“‘seventy cubits in height, the work of Chares of Lindus.’”
It now lies on the ground, having been thrown down by an
earthquake, and is broken off at the knees. An oracle prohibited its being raised again. This is the most remarkable of the
votive offerings, and it is allowed to be one of the seven
wonders of the world.109
There were also the pictures by
the Ialysus, and the Satyr, who was represented
standing by a pillar. On the top of the pillar was a partridge.
The bird strongly attracted, as was natural, the gaping admiration of the people, when the picture was first hung up in
public, and they were so much delighted, that the Satyr,
although executed with great skill, was not noticed. The
partridge-breeders were still more struck with the picture of
the bird. They brought tame partridges, which, when placed
opposite to the picture, made their call, and drew together
crowds of people. When Protogenes observed that the principal had become the subordinate part of his work, he obtained
permission of the curators of the temple to efface the bird,
which he did.
The Rhodians, although their form of government is not
democratic, are attentive to the welfare of the people, and endeavour to maintain the multitude of poor. The people receive allowances of corn, and the rich support the needy, according to an ancient usage. There are also public offices in
the state, the object of which is to procure and distribute
so that the poor may obtain subsistence, and the
city not suffer for want of persons to serve her, especially in
manning her fleets.
Some of the dockyards are kept private, and the multitude
are prohibited from seeing them. If any person should be
found inspecting, or to have entered them, he would be punished with death. As at Massalia and Cyzicus,112
so here particularly, everything relating to architects, the manufacture of
engines, stores of arms, and of other materials, is administered
with peculiar care, much more so than in other places.
Like the people of Halicarnasus,113
Cnidus, and Cos, the
Rhodians are of Doric origin. Some of the Dorians, who
founded Megara after the death of Codrus, remained there;
others associated themselves with the colony which went to
Crete under the conduct of Althæmenes the Argive; the
rest were distributed at Rhodus, and among the cities just
But these migrations are more recent than the events re-
lated by Homer. For Cnidus and Halicarnasus were not
then in existence. Rhodes and Cos existed, but were inhabited by Heracleidæ. Tlepolemus, when he attained manhood,
“‘slew the maternal uncle of his father, the aged Licymnius. He immediately built ships, and, collecting a large body of people, fled away with
and adds afterwards—
“‘after many sufferings on the voyage, he came to Rhodes; they settled
there according to their tribes, in three bodies:’”
and mentions by name the cities then existing115
“‘Lindus, Ialysus, and the white Cameirus,’”
the city of the Rhodians not being yet founded.
Homer does not here mention Dorians by name, but means
Æolians and Bœotians, since Hercules and Licymnius lived in
Bœotia. If however, as others relate, Tlepolemus set out from
Argos and Tiryns, even so the colony would not be Dorian,
for it was settled before the return of the Heracleidæ.
And of the Coans also Homer says—
“‘their leaders were Pheidippus and Antiphus, two sons of Thessalus the
King, an Heracleid;’116
and these names designate rather an Æolian than a Dorian
Rhodes was formerly called Ophiussa and Stadia, then
Telchinis, from the Telchines, who inhabited the island.117
These Telchines are called by some writers charmers and
enchanters, who besprinkle animals and plants, with a view to
destroy them, with the water of the Styx, mingled with sulphur. Others on the contrary say, that they were persons
who excelled in certain mechanical arts, and that they were
calumniated by jealous rivals, and thus acquired a bad reputation; that they came from Crete, and first landed at Cyprus,
and then removed to Rhodes. They were the first workers
in iron and brass, and were the makers of Saturn's scythe.
I have spoken of them before, but the variety of fables
which are related of them induces me to resume their history,
and to supply what may have been omitted.
After the Telchines, the Heliadæ118
were said, according
to fabulous accounts, to have occupied the island. One of
these Heliadæ, Cercaphus, and his wife Cydippe had children,
who founded the cities called after their names—
“‘Lindus, Ialysus, and the white Cameirus.’119
Others say, that Tlepolemus founded them, and gave to them
the names of some of the daughters of Danaüs.
The present city was built during the Peloponnesian
war, by the same architect,120
it is said, who built the Piræus.
The Piræus, however, does not continue to exist, having formerly sustained injuries from the Lacedæmonians, who threw
down the walls, and then from Sylla, the Roman general.
It is related of the Rhodians that their maritime affairs
were in a flourishing state, not only from the time of the foundation of the present city, but that many years before the institution of the Olympic festival, they sailed to a great distance from
their own country for the protection of sailors. They sailed
as far as Spain, and there founded Rhodus, which the people
of Marseilles afterwards occupied; they founded Parthenope121
among the Opici, and Elpiæ in Daunia, with the assistance of
Coans. Some authors relate, that after their return from Troy
they colonized the Gymnasian islands. According to Timæus,
the greater of these islands is the largest known,122
seven following, Sardinia, Sicily, Cyprus, Crete, Eubœa,123
Corsica, and Lesbos; but this is a mistake, for these others
are much larger. It is said, that gymnetes (or light-armed
) are called by the Phœnicians balearides, and that
from hence the Gymnasian islands were called Balearides.
Some of the Rhodians settled in the neighbourhood of
Sybaris, in the Chonian territory.125
Homer seems to bear
evidence of the former prosperity of the Rhodians, from the
very foundation of the three cities;
“‘they settled according to their tribes, in three companies, and were the
favourites of Jupiter, who showered upon them great wealth.’126
Other writers have applied these verses to a fable, according
to which, at the birth of Minerva, it rained gold on the island
from the head of Jupiter, as Pindar has said.127
The island is 920 stadia in circumference.
In sailing from the city, and leaving the island on the
right hand, the first place we meet with is Lindus,128
situated on a mountain extending far towards the south, and
particularly towards Alexandreia (in Egypt).129
here a celebrated temple of the Lindian Diana, built by the
Danaides. Formerly, the Lindians, like the inhabitants of
and Ialyssus, formed an independent state, but
afterwards they all settled at Rhodes.
Cleobulus, one of the seven wise men, was a native of
Next to Lindus is Ixia,131
a stronghold, and Mnasyrium; then the Atabyris,132
the highest mountain in the island,
sacred to Jupiter Atabyrius; then Cameirus; then Ialysus a
village, and above it is an acropolis called Ochyroma (the
Fortification); then, at the distance of about 80 stadia, the city
of the Rhodians. Between these is the Thoantium, a sort of
beach, immediately in front of which are situated the Sporades
islands lying about Chalcis, which we have mentioned before.133
There have been many remarkable persons, natives of
Rhodes, both generals and athlete, among whom were the
ancestors of Panætius the philosopher. Among statesmen,
orators, and philosophers, were Panætius, Stratocles, Andronicus the Peripatetic, Leonides the Stoic, and long before the
time of these persons, Praxiphanes, Hieronymus, and Eudemus. Poseidonius was concerned in the administration of the
affairs of state, and taught philosophy at Rhodes, (but he was
a native of Apameia in Syria,) as did Apollonius Malacus, and
Molon, who were natives of Alabanda, and disciples of Menecles the rhetorician. Apollonius had resided at Rhodes long
before, but Molon came late; whence the former said to him
‘late comer,’ οψὲ μολών,
instead of ἐλθών.134
Rhodian poet, author of the Heracleia; Simmias the grammarian, and Aristocles, of our time. Dionysius the Thracian,
and Apollonius, author of the Argonautics, although natives of
Alexandreia, were called Rhodians.
This is sufficient on the subject of the island of Rhodes.
There is a bend of the Carian coast opposite to Rhodes,
immediately after Eleus135
and Loryma, towards the north, and
then the ship's course is in a straight line to the Propontis,136
and forms as it were a meridian line of about 500 stadia in
length, or somewhat less. Along this line are situated the remainder of Caria, Ionians, Æolians, Troy, and the parts
about Cyzicus and Byzantium. Next to Loryma is tile Cynossema, or dogs' monument,137
and the island Syme.138
Then follows Cnidus,139
which has two harbours, one of
which is a close harbour, fit for receiving triremes, and a naval
station for 20 vessels. In front of Cnidus is an island, in circumference about 7 stadia; it rises high, in the form of a
theatre, and is united by a mole to the continent, and almost
makes Cnidus a double city, for a great part of the inhabitants occupy the island, which shelters both harbours. Opposite to it, far out at sea, is Nisyrus.140
Illustrious natives of Cnidus were, first, Eudoxus the mathematician, a disciple of Plato's; Agatharchides, the Peripatetic
philosopher and historian; Theopompus, one of the most powerful of the friends of divus Cæsar, and his son Artemidorus.
Ctesias also, the physician of Artaxerxes, was a native of this
place. He wrote a history of Assyria and Persia.
Next after Cnidus are Ceramus141
and Bargasa, small towns
overlooking the sea.
Then follows Halicarnasus, formerly called Zephyra,
the royal seat of the dynasts of Caria. Here is the sepulchre
of Mausolus, one of the seven wonders of the world;142
Artemisia erected it, in honour of her husband. Here also is
the fountain Salmacis, which has a bad repute, for what reason I know not, for making those who drink of it effeminate.
Mankind, enervated by luxury, impute the blame of its effects
to different kinds of air and water, but these are not the
causes of luxury, but riches and intemperance.
There is an acropolis at Halicarnasus. In front of it lies
It had, among others, as its founders, Anthes
and a body of Trœzenians.144
Among the natives of Halicarnasus were Herodotus the
historian, who was afterwards called Thurius, because he was
concerned in sending out the colony to Thurii; Heracleitus
the poet, the friend of Callimachus; and in our time, Dionysius
Halicarnasus suffered, when it was taken by storm by
Alexander. Hecatomnus, who was then king of the Carians,
had three sons, Mausolus, Hidrieus, and Pixodarus, and two
daughters. Mausolus, the eldest son, married Artemisia, the
eldest daughter; Hidrieus, the second son, married Ada,
the other sister. Mausolus came to the throne, and, dying
without children, left the kingdom to his wife, by whom the
above-mentioned sepulchre was erected. She pined away for
grief at the loss of her husband. Hidrieus succeeded her; lie
died a natural death, and was succeeded by his wife Ada.
She was ejected by Pixodarus, the surviving son of Hecatomnus. Having espoused the party of the Persians, Pixodarus
sent for a satrap to share the kingdom with him. After the
death of Pixodarus, the satrap became master of Halicarnasus.
But upon the arrival of Alexander, he sustained a siege. His
wife was Ada, daughter of Pixodarus, and Aphneïs, a woman
of Cappadocia. But Ada, the daughter of Hecatomnus, whom
Pixodarus ejected, entreated Alexander, and endeavoured to
prevail upon him to reïnstate her in the kingdom of which
she had been deprived; she promised (in return) her assistance in reducing to obedience the parts of the country which
had revolted; for the persons who were in possession of them
were her relations and subjects. She also delivered up Alinda,
where she herself resided. Alexander granted her request,
and proclaimed her queen, after the city was taken, but not
the acropolis, which was doubly fortified. He assigned to
Ada the siege of the acropolis, which was taken in a short
time afterwards, the besiegers having attacked it with fury
and exasperation at the resistance of the besieged.
Next is Termerium,145
a promontory of the Myndians,
opposite to which lies Scandaria, a promontory of Cos, distant
40 stadia from the continent. There is also above the promontory a fortress, Termerum.
The city of the Coans was formerly called Astypalæa,
and was built in another place, but is at present on the sea-coast. Afterwards, on account of a sedition, they migrated
to the present city, near Scandarium, and changed the name to
that of the island, Cos. The city is not large, but beautifully
built, and a most pleasing sight to mariners who are sailing
by the coast. The island is about 550 stadia in circumference.
The whole of it is fertile, and produces, like Chios and Lesbos,
excellent wine. It has, towards the south, the promontory
from which to Nicyrus is 60 stadia, and near Laceter
is Halisarna, a stronghold; on the west is Drecanum, and a
village called Stomalimne. Drecanum is distant about 200
stadia from the city. The promontory Laceter adds to the
length of the navigation 35 stadia. In the suburb is the celebrated temple Asclepieium, full of votive offerings, among
which is the Antigonus of Apelles. It formerly contained
the Venus Anadyomene, (Venus emerging from the sea,) but
that is now at Rome, dedicated to divus Cæsar by Augustus,
who consecrated to his father the picture of her who was the
author of his family. It is said that the Coans obtained, as a
compensation for the loss of this painting, an abatement,
amounting to a hundred talents, of their usual tribute.
It is said, that Hippocrates learned and practised the dietetic
part of medicine from the narrative of cures suspended in the
temple. He is one of the illustrious natives of Cos. Simus,
also, the physician, Philetas the poet and critic, Nicias of our
time, who was tyrant of Cos; Ariston, the disciple and heir of
Ariston the Peripatetic philosopher; and Theomnestus, a minstrel of name, who was of the opposite political party to Nicias.
On the coast of the continent opposite to the Myndian
territory is Astypalæa a promontory, and Zephyrium. The city
Myndus follows immediately after, which has a harbour; then
the city Bargylia. In the intervening distance is Caryanda147
harbour, and an island of the same name, occupied by Caryandians. Scylax the ancient historian was a native of this
island. Near Bargylia is the temple of Artemis Cindyas,
round which the rain falls, it is believed, without touching it.
There was once a strong place called Cindya.
Among the distinguished natives of Bargylia was Protarchus
the Epicurean; Demetrius surnamed Lacon was his disciple.
Next follows Iasus, situated upon an island,148
on the side
towards the continent. It has a port, and the inhabitants
derive the greatest part of their subsistence from the sea,
which abounds with fish, but the soil is very barren. Stories
of the following kind are related of Iasus.
As a player on the cithara was displaying his art in public,
every one listened to him attentively till the market bell rung
for the sale of fish, when he was deserted by all except one
man, who was quite deaf. The minstrel coming up to him
said, ‘Friend, I am much obliged to you for the honour you
have done me, and I admire your love of music, for all the
others have left me at the sound of the bell.’—‘What say you,
has the bell rung?’—‘Yes, he replied?’—‘Good bye to
you,’ said the man, and away he also went.
Diodorus the Dialectician was a native of this place. He
was surnamed Cronus (or Old Time); the title was not properly his from the first; it was his master Apollonius who (in
the first instance) had received the surname of Cronus, but it
was transferred to Diodorus on account of the want of celebrity
in the true Cronus.
Next to Iasus is Cape Poseidium149
of the Milesians. In
the interior are three considerable cities, Mylasa,150
The others are guard forts to these or to
the maritime towns, as Amyzon, Heracleia, Euromus, Chalcetor. But we make little account of these.
Mylasa is situated in a very fertile plain; a mountain,
containing a very beautiful marble quarry, overhangs the
city; and it is no small advantage to have stone for building
in abundance and near at hand, particularly for the construction of temples and other public edifices; consequently, no
city is embellished more beautifully than this with porticos
and temples. It is a subject of surprise, however, that persons should be guilty of the absurdity of building the city at
the foot of a perpendicular and lofty precipice. One of the
governors of the province is reported to have said, when he
expressed his astonishment at this circumstance, ‘If the
founder of the city had no fear, he had no shame.’
The Mylasians have two temples, one of Jupiter called
Osogo, and another of Jupiter Labrandenus. The former is
in the city. Labranda is a village on the mountain, near the
passage across it from Alabanda to Mylasa, at a distance from
the city. At Labranda is an ancient temple of Jupiter, and
a statue of Jupiter Stratius, who is worshipped by the neighbouring people and by the inhabitants of Mylasa. There is
a paved road for a distance of about 60 stadia from the temple
to the city; it is called the Sacred Way, along which the sacred
things are carried in procession. The most distinguished
citizens are always the priests, and hold office during life.
These temples belong peculiarly to the city. There is a third
temple of the Carian Jupiter, common to all the Carians, in
the use of which the Lydians, also, and Mysians participate,
as being brethren.
Mylasa is said to have been anciently a village, but the
native place and royal residence of Hecatomnus and the Carians.
The city approaches nearest to the sea at Physcus, which is
their naval arsenal.
Mylasa has produced in our time illustrious men, who
were at once orators and demagogues, Euthydemus and
Hybreas. Euthydemus inherited from his ancestors great
wealth and reputation. He possessed commanding eloquence,
and was regarded as a person of eminence, not only in his
own country, but was thought worthy of the highest honours
even in Asia. The father of Hybreas, as he used to relate
the circumstance in his school, and as it was confirmed by his
fellow-citizens, left him a mule which carried wood, and a
mule driver. He was maintained for a short time by their
labour, and was enabled to attend the lectures of Diotrephes
of Antioch. On his return he held the office of superintendent
of the market. But here being harassed, and gaining but
little profit, he applied himself to the affairs of the state, and
to attend to the business of the forum. He quickly advanced
himself, and became an object of admiration, even during the
lifetime of Euthydemus, and still more after his death, as the
leading person in the city. Euthydemus possessed great
power, and used it for the benefit of the city, so that if some
of his acts were rather tyrannical, this character was lost in
their public utility.
The saying of Hybreas, at the conclusion of an harangue to
the people, is applauded: ‘Euthydemus, you are an evil necessary to the city; for we can live neither with thee nor without
Hybreas, although he had acquired great power, and had
the reputation of being both a good citizen and an excellent
orator, was defeated in his political opposition to Labienus.
For the citizens, unarmed, and disposed to peace, surrendered
to Labienus, who attacked them with a body of troops and with
Parthian auxiliaries, the Parthians being at that time masters
of Asia. But Zeno of Laodiceia and Hybreas, both of them
orators, did not surrender, but caused their own cities to revolt. Hybreas provoked Labienus, an irritable and vain young
man, by saying, when the youth announced himself emperor
of the Parthians, ‘Then I shall call myself emperor of the
Carians.’ Upon this Labienus marched against the city,
having with him cohorts drafted from the Roman soldiery
stationed in Asia. He did not however take Hybreas prisoner,
who had retreated to Rhodes, but plundered and destroyed
his house, which contained costly furniture, and treated the
whole city in the same manner. After Labienus had left
Asia, Hybreas returned, and restored his own affairs and those
of the city to their former state.
This then on the subject of Mylasa.
Stratoniceia is a colony of Macedonians. It was embellished by the kings with costly edifices. In the district of
the Stratoniceians are two temples. The most celebrated, that
of Hecate, is at Lagina, where every year great multitudes
assemble at a great festival. Near the city is the temple of
which is common to all the Carians,
and whither they repair to offer sacrifice, and to deliberate on
their common interests. They call this meeting tile Chrysa-
oreōn, which is composed of villages. Those who represent
the greatest number of villages have the precedency in voting,
like the Ceramiētæ. The Stratoniceians, although they are
not of Carian race, have a place in this assembly, because
they possess villages included in the Chrysaoric body.
In the time of our ancestors there flourished at Stratoniceia
a distinguished person, Menippus the orator, surnamed Catocas, whom Cicero155
commends in one of his writings above all
the Asiatic orators whom he had heard, comparing him to
Xenocles, and to those who flourished at that time.
There is another Stratoniceia, called Stratoniceia at the
Taurus, a small town adjacent to the mountain.
Alabanda lies at the foot of two eminences, in such a
manner as to present the appearance of an ass with panniers.
On this account Apollonius Malacus ridicules the city, and
also because it abounds with scorpions; he says, it was an
ass, with panniers full of scorpions.
This city and Mylasa, and the whole mountainous tract between them, swarm with these reptiles.
The inhabitants of Alabanda are addicted to luxury and
debauchery. It contains a great number of singing girls.
Natives of Alabanda, distinguished persons, were two orators, brothers, Menecles, whom we mentioned a little above,
and Hierocles, Apollonius, and Molo; the two latter afterwards went to Rhodes.
Among the various accounts which are circulated respecting the Carians, the most generally received is that the
Carians, then called Leleges, were governed by Minos, and
occupied the islands. Then removing to the continent, they
obtained possession of a large tract of sea-coast and of the
interior, by driving out the former occupiers, who were, for
the most part, Leleges and Pelasgi. The Greeks again,
Ionians and Dorians, deprived the Carians of a portion of the
As proofs of their eager pursuit of war, the handles of
shields, badges, and crests, all of which are called Carian, are
alleged. Anacreon says,
“‘Come, grasp the well-made Caric handles;’”
“‘Shaking a Carian crest.’”
But when Homer uses these expressions, ‘Masthles
commanded the Carians, who speak a barbarous language,’156
it does not appear why, when he was acquainted with so
many barbarous nations, he mentions the Carians alone as
using a barbarous language, but does not call any people Barbarians. Nor is Thucydides right, who says that none were
called Barbarians, because as yet the Greeks were not distinguished by any one name as opposed to some other. But
Homer himself refutes this position that the Greeks were not
distinguished by this name:
“‘A man whose fame has spread through Greece and Argos;’157
and in another place—
“‘But if you wish to go through Hellas and the middle of Argos.’158
But if there was no such term as Barbarian, how could he
properly speak of people as Barbarophonoi (i. e. speaking a
Neither is Thucydides nor Apollonius the grammarian
right, because the Greeks, and particularly the Ionians, applied to the Carians a common term in a peculiar and vituperative sense, in consequence of their hatred of them for their
animosity and continual hostile incursions. Under these circumstances he might call them Barbarians. But we ask, why
does he call them Barbarophonoi, but not once Barbarians?
Because, replies Apollonius, the plural number does not fall in
with the metre; this is the reason why Homer does not call
them Barbarians. Admitting then that the genitive case
) does not fall in with the measure of the verse, the
nominative case (βάοͅβαοͅοι
) does not differ from that of Dardani (δάοͅδανοι
“‘Trojans, Lycians, and Dardani;’”
and of the same kind is the word Troïi159
in this verse,
“‘Like the Troïi horses’ (τοͅώιοι ἵπποι
Nor is the reason to be found in the alleged excessive harshness of the Carian language, for it is not extremely harsh;
and besides, according to Philippus, the author of a history of
Caria, their language contains a very large mixture of Greek
I suppose that the word ‘barbarian’ was at first invented to
designate a mode of pronunciation which was embarrassed,
harsh, and rough; as we use the words battarizein, traulizein, psellizein,160
to express the same thing. For we are naturally very much disposed to denote certain sounds by names
expressive of those sounds, and characteristic of their nature;
and hence invented terms abound, expressive of the sounds
which they designate, as kelaryzein, clange, psophos, boe,
most of which words are at present used in an appropriate sense.
As those who pronounce their words with a thick enunciation are called Barbarians, so foreigners, I mean those who
were not Greeks, were observed to pronounce their words in
this manner. The term Barbarians was therefore applied
peculiarly to these people, at first by way of reproach, as
having a thick and harsh enunciation; afterwards the term
was used improperly, and applied as a common gentile term
in contradistinction to the Greeks. For after a long intimacy
and intercourse had subsisted with the Barbarians, it no
longer appeared that this peculiarity arose from any thickness of enunciation, or a natural defect in the organs of the
voice, but from the peculiarities of their languages.
But there was in our language a bad and what might be
called a barbarous utterance, as when any person speaking
Greek should not pronounce it correctly, but should pronounce
the words like the Barbarians, who, when beginning to learn
the Greek language, are not able to pronounce it perfectly,
as neither are we able to pronounce perfectly their languages.
This was peculiarly the case with the Carians. For other
nations had not much intercourse with the Greeks, nor were
disposed to adopt the Grecian manner of life, nor to learn our
language, with the exception of persons who by accident
and singly had associated with a few Greeks; but the Carians
were dispersed over the whole of Greece, as mercenary soldiers. Then the barbarous pronunciation was frequently met
with among them, from their military expeditions into Greece;
and afterwards it spread much more, from the time that they
occupied the islands together with the Greeks: not even when
driven thence into Asia, could they live apart from Greeks,
when the Ionians and Dorians arrived there.
Hence arose the expression, ‘to barbarize,’ for we are accustomed to apply this term to those whose pronunciation of
the Greek language is vicious, and not to those who pronounce it like the Carians.
We are then to understand the expressions, ‘barbarous
speaking’ and ‘barbarous speakers,’ of persons whose pronunciation of the Greek language is faulty. The word ‘to
barbarize’ was formed after the word ‘to Carize,’ and transferred into the books which teach the Greek language; thus
also the word ‘to solœcize’ was formed, derived either from
Soli or some other source.
Artemidorus says that the journey from Physcus, on
the coast opposite to Rhodes, towards Ephesus, as far as Lagina is 850 stadia; thence to Alabanda 250 stadia; to Tralles
160. About halfway on the road to Tralles the Mæander is
crossed, and here are the boundaries of Caria. The whole
number of stadia from Physcus to the Mæander, along the
road to Ephesus, is 1180 stadia. Again, along the same road,
from the Mæander of Ionia to Tralles 80 stadia, to Magnesia
140 stadia, to Ephesus 120, to Smyrna 320, to Phocæa and the
boundaries of Ionia, less than 200 stadia; so that the length of
Ionia in a straight line would be, according to Artemidorus, a
little more than 800 stadia.
But as there is a public frequented road by which all travellers pass on their way from Ephesus to the east, Artemidorus thus describes it. [From Ephesus] to Carura, the
boundary of Caria towards Phrygia, through Magnesia and
Tralles, Nysa, Antioch, is a journey of 740 stadia. From
Carura, the first town in Phrygia, through Laodiceia, Apameia,
Metropolis, and Chelidoniæ,162
to Holmi, the beginning of the
Paroreius, a country lying at the foot of the mountains, about
920 stadia; to Tyriæum,163
the termination towards Lycaonia
of the Paroreius,164
is little more than
500 stadia. Next is Lycaonia as far as Coropassus,166
Laodiceia in the Catacecaumene, 840 stadia; from Coropassus
in Lycaonia to Garsaüra,167
a small city of Cappadocia, situated
on its borders, 120 stadia; thence to Mazaca,168
of the Cappadocians, through Soandus and Sadacora, 680
stadia; thence to the Euphrates, as far as Tomisa, a stronghold in Sophene, through Herphæ,169
a small town, 1440 stadia.
The places in a straight line with these, as far as India, are
described in the same manner by Artemidorus and Eratosthenes. Polybius says, that with respect to those places we
ought chiefly to depend upon Artemidorus. He begins from
Samosata in Commagene, which is situated at the passage,
and the Zeugma of the Euphrates, to Samosata across the
Taurus, from the mountains of Cappadocia about Tomisa, he
says is a distance of 450 stadia.
AFTER the part of the coast opposite170
to Rhodes, the
boundary of which is Dædala, in sailing thence towards the
east, we come to Lycia, which extends to Pamphylia; next is
Pamphylia, extending as far as Cilicia Tracheia, which reaches
as far as the Cilicians, situated about the Bay of Issus. These
are parts of the peninsula, the isthmus of which we said was
the road from Issus as far as Amisus,171
or, according to some
authors, to Sinope.
The country beyond the Taurus consists of the narrow line
of sea-coast extending from Lycia to the places about Soli,
the present Pompeiopolis. Then the sea-coast near the Bay
of Issus, beginning from Soli and Tarsus, spreads out into
The description of this coast will complete the account of
the whole peninsula. We shall then pass to the rest of Asia
without the Taurus, and lastly we shall describe Africa.
After Dedala of the Rhodians there is a mountain of
Lycia, of the same name, Dedala, and here the whole Lycian
coast begins, and extends 1720 stadia. This maritime tract
is rugged, and difficult to be approached, but has very good
harbours, and is inhabited by a people who are not inclined
to acts of violence. The country is similar in nature to that
of Pamphylia and Cilicia Tracheia. But the former used
the places of shelter for vessels for piratical purposes themselves, or afforded to pirates a market for their plunder and
stations for their vessels.
a city of Pamphylia, the Cilicians had places for
building ships. They sold their prisoners, whom they admitted were freemen, by notice through the public crier.
But the Lycians continued to live as good citizens, and with
so much restraint upon themselves, that although the Pamphylians had succeeded in obtaining the sovereignty of the
sea as far as Italy, yet they were never influenced by the desire of base gain, and persevered in administering the affairs
of the state according to the laws of the Lycian body.
There are three and twenty cities in this body, which
have votes. They assemble from each city at a general congress, and select what city they please for their place of meeting. Each of the largest cities commands three votes, those
of intermediate importance two, and the rest one vote. They
contribute in the same proportion to taxes and other public
charges. The six largest cities, according to Artemidorus,
Olympus, Myra, Tlos,176
is situated at the pass of the mountain leading to Cibyra.
At the congress a lyciarch is first elected, then the other
officers of the body. Public tribunals are also appointed for
the administration of justice. Formerly they deliberated
about war and peace, and alliances, but this is not now permitted, as these things are under the control of the Romans.
It is only done by their consent, or when it may be for their
Thus judges and magistrates are elected according to the
proportion of the number of votes belonging to each city.177
It was the fortune of these people, who lived under such an
excellent government, to retain their liberty under the Romans, and the laws and institutions of their ancestors; to see
also the entire extirpation of the pirates, first by Servilius
Isauricus, at the time that he demolished Isaura, and afterwards by Pompey the Great, who burnt more than 1300 vessels, and destroyed their haunts and retreats. Of the survivors
in these contests he transferred some to Soli, which he called
Pompeiopolis; others to Dyme, which had a deficient population, and is now occupied by a Roman colony.
The poets, however, particularly the tragic poets, confound
nations together; for instance, Trojans, Mysians, and Lydians,
whom they call Phrygians, and give the name of Lycians to
After Dædala is a Lycian mountain, and near it is Telmessus,178
a small town of the Lycians, and Telmessis, a promontory with a harbour. Eumenes took this place from the Romans in the war with Antiochus, but after the dissolution of
the kingdom of Pergamus, the Lycians recovered it again.
Then follows Anticragus, a precipitous mountain, on
which is Carmylessus,179
a fortress situated in a gorge; next is
Mount Cragus, with eight peaks,180
and a city of the same
name. The neighbourhood of these mountains is the scene
of the fable of the Chimæra; and at no great distance is
Chimera, a sort of ravine, extending upwards from the shore.
Below the Cragus in the interior is Pinara, which is one of
the largest cities of Lycia. Here Pandarus is worshipped, of
the same name perhaps as the Trojan Pandarus;
“‘thus the pale nightingale, daughter of Pandarus;’181
for this Pandarus, it is said, came from Lycia.
Next is the river Xanthus, formerly called Sirbis.182
sailing up it in vessels which ply as tenders, to the distance of
10 stadia, we come to the Letoum, and proceeding 60 stadia
beyond the temple, we find the city of the Xanthians, the
largest in Lycia. After the Xanthus follows Patara, which
is also a large city with a harbour, and containing a temple of
Apollo. Its founder was Patarus. When Ptolemy Philadelphus repaired it, he called it the Lycian Arsinoe, but the old
Next is Myra, at the distance of 20 stadia from the sea,
situated upon a lofty hill; then the mouth of the river Limyrus, and on ascending from it by land 20 stadia, we come to
the small town Limyra. In the intervening distance along
the coast above mentioned are many small islands and harbours. The most considerable of the islands is Cisthene, on
which is a city of the same name.183
In the interior are the
strongholds Phellus, Antiphellus, and Chimæra, which I
Then follow the Sacred Promontory184
and the Chelidoniæ,
three rocky islands, equal in size, and distant from each other
about 5, and from the land 6 stadia. One of them has an
anchorage for vessels. According to the opinion of many
writers, the Taurus begins here, because the summit is lofty,
and extends from the Pisidian mountains situated above Pamphylia, and because the islands lying in front exhibit a re-
markable figure in the sea, like a skirt of a mountain. But
in tact the mountainous chain is continued from the country
opposite Rhodes to the parts near Pisidia, and this range of
mountains is called Taurus.
The Chelidoniæ islands seem to be situated in a manner
opposite to Canopus,185
and the passage across is said to be 4000
From the Sacred Promontory to Olbia186
there remain 367
stadia. In this distance are Crambusa,187
large city, and a mountain of the same name, which is called
then follows Corycus, a tract of sea-coast.
Then follows Phaselis,190
a considerable city, with three
harbours and a lake. Above it is the mountain Solyma191
a Pisidic city, situated on the defiles, through
which there is a pass over the mountain to Milyas. Alexander demolished it, with the intention of opening the defiles.
About Phaselis, near the sea, are narrow passes through
which Alexander conducted his army. There is a mountain
called Climax. It overhangs the sea of Pamphylia, leaving a
narrow road along the coast, which in calm weather is not
covered with water, and travellers can pass along it, but when
the sea is rough, it is in a great measure hidden by the
waves. The pass over the mountains is circuitous and steep,
but in fair weather persons travel on the road along the
shore. Alexander came there when there was a storm, and
trusting generally to fortune, set out before the sea had receded, and the soldiers marched during the whole day up to
the middle of the body in water.
Phaselis also is a Lycian city, situated on the confines of
Pamphylia. It is not a part of the Lycian body, but is an
The poet distinguishes the Solymi from the Lycians,
When he despatches Bellerophon by the king of the Lycians to
this second adventure;
“‘he encountered the brave Solymi;’193
other writers say that the Lycians were formerly called Solymi, and afterwards Termilæ, from the colonists that accompanied Sarpedon from Crete; and afterwards Lycians, from
Lycus the son of Pandion, who, after having been banished
from his own country, was admitted by Sarpedon to a share
in the government; but their story does not agree with Homer.
We prefer the opinion of those who say that the poet called
the people Solymi who have now the name of Milyæ, and
whom we have mentioned before.
AFTER Phaselis is Olbia; here Pamphylia begins. It is
a large fortress. It is followed by the Cataractes,194
as it is
called, a river which descends violently from a lofty rock, with
a great body of water, like a winter torrent, so that the noise
of it is heard at a great distance.
Next is Attaleia,195
a city, so called from its founder Attalus
Philadelphus, who also settled another colony at Corycus, a
small city near Attaleia, by introducing other inhabitants, and
extending the circuit of the walls.
It is said, that between Phaselis and Attaleia, Thebe and
are shown; for, according to Callisthenes, a part
of the Trojan Cilicians were driven from the plain of Thebe
Next is the river Cestrus;197
on sailing up its stream 60
stadia we find the city Perge,198
and near it upon an elevated
place, the temple of the Pergæan Artemis, where a general
festival is celebrated every year.
Then at the distance of about 40 stadia from the sea is
on an elevated site, and visible at Perge. Next is
Capria, a lake of considerable extent; then the river Eurymedon;200
sailing up it to the distance of 60 stadia, we come to
a well-peopled city, founded by Argives. Above
it is Petnelissus;202
then another river, and many small islands
lying in front; then Side, a colony of the Cymæans, where
there is a temple of Minerva. Near it is the coast of the Little
Cibyratæ; then the river Melas,203
and an anchorage for vessels;
a city; next the borders of Pamphylia, and
where Cilicia Tracheia begins. The whole of
the voyage along the coast of Pamphylia is 640 stadia.
that the Pamphylians are descendants
of the people who accompanied Amphilochus and Calchas
from Troy, a mixture of various nations. The majority of
them settled here, others were dispersed over different countries. Callinus says that Calchas died at Clarus, but that
some of the people who, together with Mopsus, crossed the
Taurus, remained in Pamphylia, and that others were scattered in Cilicia and Syria, and as far even as Phœnicia.
OF Cilicia without the Taurus one part is called Cilicia
Tracheia, the rugged; the other, Cilicia Pedias, the flat or
The coast of the Tracheia is narrow, and either has no level
ground or it rarely occurs; besides this, the Taurus overhangs it, which is badly inhabited as far even as the northern
side, about Isaura and the Homonadeis as far as Pisidia.
This tract has the name of Tracheiotis, and the inhabitants
that of Tracheiotæ. The flat or plain country extends from
Soli and Tarsus as far as Issus, and the parts above, where
the Cappadocians are situated on the northern side of the
Taurus. This tract consists chiefly of fertile plains.
I have already spoken of the parts within the Taurus; I
shall now describe those without the Taurus, beginning with
The first place is Coracesium,207
a fortress of the Cilicians,
situated upon an abrupt rock. Diodotus surnamed Tryphon
used it as a rendezvous at the time that he caused Syria to
revolt from her kings, and carried on war against them with
various success. Antiochus, the son of Demetrius, obliged
him to shut himself up in one of the fortresses, and there he
Tryphon was the cause of originating among the Cilicians
a piratical confederacy. They were induced also to do this
by the imbecility of the kings who succeeded each other on
the thrones of Syria and Cilicia. In consequence of his introduction of political changes, others imitated his example,
and the dissensions among brothers exposed the country to
the attacks of invaders.
The exportation of slaves was the chief cause of inducing
them to commit criminal acts, for this traffic was attended
with very great profit, and the slaves were easily taken. Delos was at no great distance, a large and rich mart, capable of
receiving and transporting, when sold, the same day, ten
thousand slaves; so that hence arose a proverbial saying,
“‘Merchant, come into port, discharge your freight—everything is sold.’”
The Romans, having acquired wealth after the destruction of
Carthage and Corinth, employed great numbers of domestic
slaves, and were the cause of this traffic. The pirates, observing the facility with which slaves could be procured, issued
forth in numbers from all quarters, committing robbery and
dealing in slaves.
The kings of Cyprus and of Egypt, who were enemies
of the Syrians, favoured their marauding enterprises; the
Rhodians were no less hostile to the Syrians, and therefore
afforded the latter no protection. The pirates, therefore, under
the pretence of trading in slaves, continued without intermission their invasions and robbery.
The Romans paid little attention to the places situated
without the Taurus; they sent, however, Scipio Æmilianus.
and afterwards some others, to examine the people and the
cities. They discovered that the evils arose from negligence
on the part of the sovereigns, but they were reluctant to deprive the family of Seleucus Nicator of the succession, in
which he had been confirmed by themselves.
For the same reason the Parthians, who occupied the parts
beyond the Euphrates, became masters of the country; and
lastly the Armenians, who also gained possession of the country without the Taurus as far as Phoenicia. They used their
utmost to extirpate the power of the kings and all their descendants, but surrendered the command of the sea to the
The Romans were subsequently compelled to reduce the
Cilicians, after their aggrandizement, by war and expeditions,
whose progress, however, and advancement they had not obstructed; yet it would be improper to accuse the Romans of
neglect, because, being engaged with concerns nearer at hand,
they were unable to direct their attention to more distant
I thought proper to make these remarks in a short digression from my subject.
Next to the Coracesium is the city Syedra;208
a small town upon a hill, with a harbour, to which is
brought down timber for ship-building; the greatest part of
it consists of cedar. This country seems to produce this tree
in abundance. It was on this account that Antony assigned
it to Cleopatra, as being capable of furnishing materials for
the construction of her fleet.
Then follows Laertes a fortress, situated upon the crest of
a hill, of a pap-like form; a port belongs to it; next, the city
then Cragus, a precipitous rock on the sea-coast; then
a fortress, which has a port (above it is the
) and a rocky shore, called Platanistus,
a promontory, where the continent approaches nearest to Cyprus, towards the promontory Crommyum,214
the passage across being 350 stadia.
From the boundaries of Pamphylia to Anemurium, the voyage along the Cilician coast is 820 stadia; the remainder of
it as far as Soli215
is about 500 stadia (1500?). On this coast,
after Anemurium, the first city is Nagidus, then Arsinoë,216
a small port; then a place called Melania,217
city, with a harbour.
among whom is Artemidorus, consider this
place as the commencement of Cilicia, and not Coracesium.
He says, that from the Pelusiac mouth to Orthosia are 3900
stadia, and to the river Orontes220
1130 stadia; then to the
gates of Cilicia 525 stadia, and to the borders of Cilicia 1260
Next is Holmi,222
formerly inhabited by the present Seleucians; but when Seleucia on the Calycadnus was built, they
removed there. On doubling the coast, which forms a promontory called Sarpedon,223
we immediately come to the mouth
of the Calycadnus.224
a promontory is near the
Calycadnus. The river may be ascended as far as Seleucia,
a city well peopled, and the manners of whose inhabitants
are very different from those of the people of Cilicia and
In our time there flourished at that place remarkable persons of the Peripatetic sect of philosophers, Athenæus and
Xenarchus. The former was engaged in the administration
of the affairs of state in his own country, and for some time
espoused the party of the people; he afterwards contracted a
friendship with Murena, with whom he fled, and with whom
he was captured, on the discovery of the conspiracy against
Augustus Cæsar; but he established his innocence, and was
set at liberty by Cæsar. When he returned from Rome, he
addressed the first persons who saluted him, and made their
inquiries, in the words of Euripides—
“‘I come from the coverts of the dead, and the gates of darkness.’226
He survived his return but a short time, being killed by the
fall, during the night, of the house in which he lived.
Xenarchus, whose lectures I myself attended, did not long
remain at home, but taught philosophy at Alexandreia, Athens,
and Rome. He enjoyed the friendship of Areius, and afterwards of Augustus Cæsar; he lived to old age, honoured and
respected. Shortly before his death he lost his sight, and
died a natural death.
After the Calycadnus, is the rock called Pœcile,227
has steps, like those of a ladder, cut in the rock, on the road
to Seleucia. Then follows the promontory Anemurium,228
the same name with the former, Crambusa an island, and
a promontory, above which, at the distance of
20 stadia, is the Corycian cave, where grows the best saffron.
It is a large valley of a circular form, surrounded by a ridge of
rock, of considerable height all round. Upon descending into
it, the bottom is irregular, and a great part of it rocky, but
abounding with shrubs of the evergreen and cultivated kind.
There are interspersed spots which produce the saffron.
There is also a cave in which rises a river of pure and transparent water. Immediately at its source the river buries itself
in the ground, and continues its subterraneous course till it discharges itself into the sea. The name of (Pikron Hydor)
‘bitter water’ is given to it.
After Corycus, is the island Elæussa,230
lying very near
the continent. Here Archelaus resided, and built a palace,
after having become master of the whole of Cilicia Tracheiotis,
except Seleucia, as Augustus had been before, and as at a still
earlier period it was held by Cleopatra. For as the country
was well adapted by nature for robbery both by sea and land,
(by land, on account of the extent of the mountains, and the
nations situated beyond them, who occupy plains, and large
tracts of cultivated country easy to be overrun; by sea, on
account of the supply of timber for ship-building, the harbours, fortresses, and places of retreat,) for all these reasons
the Romans thought it preferable that the country should be
under the government of kings, than be subject to Roman
governors sent to administer justice, but who would not always
be on the spot, nor attended by an army. In this manner
Archelaus obtained possession of Cilicia Tracheia, in addition
to Cappadocia. Its boundaries between Soli and Elæussa
are the river Lamus,231
and a village of the same name.232
At the extremity of the Taurus is Olympus a moun-
the piratical hold of Zenicetus, and a fortress of the same
name. It commands a view of the whole of Lycia, Pamphylia,
and Pisidia. When the mountain was taken by (Servilius)
Isauricus, Zenicetus burnt himself, with all his household. To
this robber belonged Corycus, Phaselis, and many strongholds
in Pamphylia, all of which were taken by (Servilius) Isauricus.
Next to Lamus is Soli,234
a considerable city, where the
other Cilicia, that about Issus, commences. It was founded
by Achæans, and by Rhodians from Lindus. Pompey the
Great transferred to this city, which had a scanty population,
the survivors of the pirates, whom he thought most entitled
to protection and clemency, and changed its name to Pompeiopolis.
Chrysippus the Stoic philosopher, the son of an inhabitant
of Tarsus, who left it to live at Soli; Philemon the comic
poet; and Aratus, who composed a poem called ‘the Phænomena,’ were among the illustrious natives of this place.
Next follows Zephyrium,235
of the same name as that near
Calycadnus; then Anchiale, a little above the sea, built by
Sardanapalus, according to Aristobulus. (According to the
same author) the tomb of Sardanapalus is here, and a stone
figure representing him with the fingers of his right hand
brought together as in the act of snapping them, and the following inscription in Assyrian letters: ‘SARDANAPALUS,
THE SON OF ANACYNDARAXES, BUILT ANCHIALE AND TARSUS IN ONE DAY. EAT, DRINK, BE MERRY; EVERYTHING ELSE
IS NOT WORTH236
THAT’—the snapping of the fingers.
Chœrilus mentions this inscription, and the following lines
are everywhere known:
“‘Meat and drink, wanton jests, and the delights of love, these I have enjoyed; but my great wealth I have left behind.’$$4”
Above Anchiale is situated Cyinda a fortress, where
the Macedonian kings formerly kept their treasure. Eumenes,
when he revolted from Antigonus, took it away. Further
above this place and Soli, is a mountainous tract, where is
situated Olbe a city, which has a temple of Jupiter, founded
by Ajax, son of Teucer. The priest of this temple was master
of the Tracheiotis. Subsequently many tyrants seized upon
the country, and it became the retreat of robbers. After their
extermination, the country was called, even to our times, the
dominion of Teucer; and the priesthood, the priesthood of
Teucer; indeed, most of the priests had the name of Teucer,
or of Ajax. Aba, the daughter of Xenophanes, one of the
tyrants, entered into this family by marriage, and obtained
possession of the government. Her father had previously administered it as guardian, but Antony and Cleopatra afterwards conferred it upon Aba, as a favour, being ultimately
prevailed upon to do so by her entreaties and attentions.
She was afterwards dispossessed, but the government remained in the hands of the descendants of her family.
Next to Anchiale are the mouths of the Cydnus237
Rhegma, (the Rent,) as it is called. It is a place like a lake,
and has ancient dockyards; here the Cydnus discharges itself, after flowing through the middle of Tarsus. It rises in
the Taurus, which overhangs the city. The lake is a naval
arsenal of Tarsus.
The whole of the sea-coast, beginning from the part
opposite to Rhodes, extends to this place in the direction from
the western to the eastern point of the equinoctial. It then
turns towards the winter solstice, as far as Issus, and thence
immediately makes a bend to the south to Phœnicia. The
remainder towards the west terminates at the pillars (of Hercules).238
The actual isthmus of the peninsula, which we have described, is that which extends from Tarsus and the mouth of the
Cydnus as far as Amisus, for this is the shortest distance from
Amisus to the boundaries of Cilicia; from these to Tarsus are
120 stadia, and not more from Tarsus to the mouth of the
Cydnus. To Issus, and the sea near it, there is no shorter
road from Amisus than that leading through Tarsus, nor
from Tarsus to Issus is there any nearer than that leading to
Cydnus; so that it is clear, that, in reality, this is the isthmus.
Yet it is pretended that the isthmus extending as far as the
Bay of Issus is the true isthmus, on account of its presenting
Hence, not aiming at exactness, we say that the line drawn
from the country opposite to Rhodes, which we protracted as
far as Cydnus, is the same as that extending as far as Issus,
and that the Taurus extends in a straight direction with this
line as far as India.
Tarsus is situated in a plain. It was founded by Argives, who accompanied Triptolemus in his search after Io.
The Cydnus flows through the middle of it, close by the
gymnasium of the young men. As the source is not far distant, and the stream passing through a deep valley, then flows
immediately into the city, the water is cold and rapid in its
course; hence it is of advantage to men and beasts affected
with swellings of the sinews, fluxions, and gout.239
The inhabitants of this city apply to the study of philosophy and to the whole encyclical compass of learning with so
much ardour, that they surpass Athens, Alexandreia, and every
other place which can be named where there are schools and
lectures of philosophers.
It differs however so far from other places, that the studious
are all natives, and strangers are not inclined to resort thither.
Even the natives themselves do not remain, but travel abroad
to complete their studies, and having completed them reside in
foreign countries. Few of them return.
The contrary is the case in the other cities which I have
mentioned, except Alexandreia; for multitudes repair to
them, and reside there with pleasure; but you would observe
that few of the natives travel abroad from a love of learning,
or show much zeal in the pursuit of it on the spot. But
both these things are to be seen at Alexandreia, a large number
of strangers is received, (into their schools,) and not a few of
their own countrymen are sent out to foreign countries (to
study). They have schools of all kinds, for instruction in the
liberal arts. In other respects Tarsus is well peopled, extremely powerful, and has the character of being the capital.240
The Stoic philosophers Antipater, Archedemus, and
Nestor were natives of Tarsus: and besides these, the two
Athenodori, one of whom, Cordylion, lived with Marcus Cato,
and died at his house; the other, the son of Sandon, called
Cananites, from some village, was the preceptor of Cæsar,241
conferred on him great honours. In his old age he returned
to his native country, where he dissolved the form of government existing there, which was unjustly administered by
various persons, and among them by Boëthus, a bad poet and
a bad citizen, who had acquired great power by courting the
favour of the people. Antony contributed to increase his importance by having in the first instance commended a poem
which he had composed on the victory at Philippi; his influence was still augmented by the facility which he possessed
(and it is very general among the inhabitants of Tarsus) of
discoursing at great length, and without preparation, upon
any given subject. Antony also had promised the people of
Tarsus to establish a gymnasium; he appointed Boëthus chief
director of it, and intrusted to him the expenditure of the
funds. He was detected in secreting, among other things, even
the oil, and when charged with this offence by his accusers
in the presence of Antony, he deprecated his anger by this,
among other remarks in his speech, that as Homer had sung
the praises of ‘Achilles, Agamemnon, and Ulysses, so have I
sung yours. I therefore ought not to be brought before
you on such a charge.’ The accuser answered, ‘Homer did
not steal oil from Agamemnon242
nor Achilles; but you have
stolen it from the gymnasium, and therefore you shall be
punished.’ Yet he contrived to avert the displeasure of
Antony by courteous offices, and continued to plunder the city
until the death of his protector.
Athenodorus found the city in this state, and for some time
attempted to control Boëthus and his accomplices by argument; but finding that they continued to commit all kinds of
injustice, he exerted the power given to him by Cæsar, condemned them to banishment, and expelled them. They had
previously caused to be written upon the walls, ‘Action for
the young, counsel for the middle-aged, discharging wind for the
old;’ but Athenodorus, accepting it as a jest, gave orders to
inscribe by the side of it, ‘Thunder for the old.’ Some one,
however, in contempt for his good manners, having a lax
state of body, bespattered the gate and wall of his house as
he passed by it at night. Athenodorus, in an assembly of
the people, accusing persons of being factiously disposed, said,
‘ We may perceive the sickly condition of the city, and its bad
habit of body, from many circumstances, but particularly from
These men were Stoics, but Nestor, of our time, the tutor
of Marcellus, son of Octavia, the sister of Cæsar, was of the
Academic sect. He was also at the head of the government, having succeeded Athenodorus, and continued to be
honoured both by the Roman governors and by the citizens.
Among the other philosophers,
“‘Those whom I know, and could in order name,’243
were Plutiades and Diogenes, who went about from city to
city, instituting schools of philosophy as the opportunity occurred. Diogenes, as if inspired by Apollo, composed and
rehearsed poems, chiefly of the tragic kind, upon any subject
that was proposed. The grammarians of Tarsus, whose writings we have, were Artemidorus and Diodorus. But the best
writer of tragedy, among those enumerated in ‘The Pleiad,’
was Dionysides. Rome is best able to inform us what number of learned men this city has produced, for it is filled
with persons from Tarsus and Alexandreia.
Such then is Tarsus.
After the Cydnus follows the Pyramus,244
from Cataonia. We have spoken of it before. Artemidorus
says, that from thence to Soli is a voyage in a straight line of
500 stadia. Near the Pyramus is Mallus,245
situated upon a
height; it was founded by Amphilochus, and Mopsus, the son
of Apollo, and Mantus, about whom many fables are related.
I have mentioned them in speaking of Calchas, and of the
contest between Calchas and Mopsus respecting their skill in
divination. Some persons, as Sophocles, transfer the scene
of this contest to Sicily, which, after the custom of tragic
poets, they call Pamphylia, as they call Lycia, Caria, and
Troy and Lydia, Phrygia. Sophocles, among other writers,
says that Calchas died there. According to the fable, the
contest did not relate to skill in divination only, but also to
sovereignty. For it is said, that Mopsus and Amphilochus,
on their return from Troy, founded Mallus; that Amphilochus afterwards went to Argos, and being dissatisfied with
the state of affairs there, returned to Mallus, where, being excluded from a share in the government, he engaged with
Mopsus in single combat. Both were killed, but their sepulchres are not in sight of each other. They are shown at
present at Magarsa, near the Pyramus.
Crates the grammarian was a native of this place, and
Panætius is said to have been his disciple.
Above this coast is situated the Aleian plain, over
which Philotas conducted Alexander's cavalry, he himself
leading the phalanx from Soli along the sea-coast and the
territory of Mallus to Issus, against the forces of Darius. It
is said that Alexander performed sacrifices in honour of Amphilochus, on account of their common affinity to Argos. Hesiod says that Amphilochus was killed by Apollo at Soli;
according to others, at the Aleian plain; and others again say,
in Syria, upon his quitting the Aleian plain on account of the
Mallus is followed by Ægææ, a small town246
shelter for vessels; then the Amanides Gates, (Gates of Amanus,247
) with a shelter for vessels. At these gates terminates
the mountain Amanus,248
which extends from the Taurus, and
lies above Cilicia towards the east. It was successively in
the possession of several tyrants, who had strongholds; but,
in our time, Tarcondimotus, who was a man of merit, became
master of all; for his good conduct and bravery, he received
from the Romans the title of King, and transmitted the succession to his posterity.
Next to Ægææ is Issus, a small town with a shelter for vessels, and a river, the Pinarus.249
At Issus the battle
was fought between Alexander and Darius. The bay is
called the Issic Bay. The city Rhosus250
is situated upon it,
as also the city Myriandrus, Alexandreia,251
and the Gates,253
as they are called, which are the
boundary between Cilicia and Syria.
In Cilicia are the temple of the Sarpedonian Artemis and
an oracle. Persons possessed with divine inspiration deliver
After Cilicia, the first Syrian city is Seleucia-in-Pieria;254
near it the river Orontes255
empties itself. From Seleucia to
Soli is a voyage in a straight line of nearly 1000 stadia.
Since the Cilicians of the Troad, whom Homer mentions, are situated at a great distance from the Cilicians without the Taurus, some writers declare that the leaders of the
latter colony were Cilicians of the Troad, and point to Thebe
and Lyrnessus in Pamphylia, places bearing the same name
as those in the Troad; other authors are of a contrary opinion,
and (considering the Cilicians of the Troad as descendants of
those from beyond the Taurus) point to an Aleian plain (in
support of their hypothesis).
Having described the parts of the before-mentioned
Chersonesus without the Taurus, I must add these particulars.
Apollodorus, in his work on the catalogue of the ships
mentioned in Homer, relates, that all the allies of the Trojans,
who came from Asia, inhabited, according to the poet, the
peninsula of which at its narrowest part is the isthmus between the innermost recess of the bay at Sinope and Issus.
The exterior sides (of this peninsula), which is of a triangular shape, are unequal. Of these, one extends from Cilicia
to Chelidoniæ, (islands,) another thence to the mouth of the
Euxine, and the third from the mouth of the Euxine to
The assertion that the allies were only those who occupied
the peninsula may be proved to be erroneous by the same
arguments by which we before showed that those who lived
within the Halys were not the only allies. For the places
about Pharnacia, where we said the Halizoni lived, are situated without the Halys, and also without the isthmus, for they
are without the line drawn from Sinope to Issus;256
only without this line, but also without the true line of the isthmus drawn from Amisus to Issus; for Apollodorus incorrectly
describes the isthmus and the line of its direction, substituting one line for another (the line drawn from Sinope to Issus
for the line drawn from Amisus to Issus).
But the greatest absurdity is this, that after having said
that the peninsula was of a triangular shape, he speaks of
sides. For in speaking of exterior
seems to except the line of the isthmus itself, considering it
still a side, although not an exterior
side, from its not being
upon the sea. But if this line were so shortened that the extremities of the (exterior
) sides falling upon Issus and Sinope
nearly coincided, the peninsula might in that case be said to
be of a triangular shape; but as his own line (from Sinope to
Issus) is 3000 stadia in length, it would be ignorance, and not
a knowledge of chorography, to call such a four-sided figure
a triangle. Yet he published a work on Chorography, in the
metre of comedy, (Iambic metre,) entitled ‘The Circuit of
He is still liable to the same charge of ignorance, even if
we should suppose the isthmus to be contracted to its least
dimensions, and follow writers who erroneously estimate the
distance at one-half of the sum, namely 1500 stadia, to which
it is reduced by Artemidorus; but even this would not by
any means reduce the thus contracted space to the figure of a
Besides, Artemidorus has not correctly described the exterior sides; one side, he says, extends from Issus to the Chelidoniæ islands, although the whole Lycian coast, and the country opposite to Rhodes as far as Physcus, lies in a straight
line with, and is a continuation of it; the continent then
makes a bend at Physcus, and forms the commencement of
the second or western side, extending to the Propontis and
Ephorus had said that this peninsula was inhabited by
sixteen tribes, three of which were Grecian, and the rest barbarous, with the exception of the mixed nations; he placed
on the sea-coast Cilicians, Pamphylians, Lycians, Bithynians,
Paphlagonians, Mariandyni, Troes, and Carians; and in the
interior, Pisidians, Mysians, Chalybes, Phrygians, and Milyæ.257
Apollodorus, when discussing this position, says there is a
seventeenth tribe, the Galatians, who are more recent than
the time of Ephorus; that of the sixteen tribes mentioned, the
Greeks were not settled (in the peninsula) at the period of
the Trojan war, and that time has produced great intermixture
and confusion among the barbarous nations. Homer, he continues, recites in his Catalogue the Troes, and those now called
Paphlagonians, Mysians, Phrygians, Carians, Lycians, Meionians, instead of Lydians and other unknown people, as Halizoni and Caucones; nations besides not mentioned in the
Catalogue but elsewhere, as Ceteii, Solymi, the Cilicians from
the plain of Thebe, and Leleges. But the Pamphylians,
Bithynians, Mariandyni, Pisidians, and Chalybes, Milyæ, and
Cappadocians are nowhere mentioned by the poet; some because
they did not then inhabit these places, and some because they
were surrounded by other tribes, as Idrieis and Termilæ by
Carians, Doliones and Bebryces by Phrygians.
But Apollodorus does not seem to have carefully examined the statements of Ephorus, for he confounds and misrepresents the words of Homer. He ought first to have inquired of Ephorus why he placed the Chalybes within the
peninsula, who were situated at a great distance from Sinope,
and Amisus towards the east. Those who describe the isthmus of this peninsula to be on the line drawn from Issus to
the Euxine, lay down this line as a sort of meridian line,
which some suppose to pass through Sinope, others through
Amisus; but no one through the Chalybes, for such a line
would be altogether an oblique line. For the meridian passing through the Chalybes, drawn through the Lesser Armenia,
and the Euphrates, would comprise (on the east) the whole of
Cappadocia, Commagene, Mount Amanus, and the Bay of Issus.
But if we should grant (to Ephorus) that this oblique line is
the direction of the isthmus, most of these places, Cappadocia
in particular, would be included, and (the kingdom of) Pontus, properly so called, which is a part of Cappadocia on the
Euxine; so that if we were to admit the Chalybes to be a
part of the peninsula, with more reason we ought to admit the
Cataonians, the two nations of Cappadocians, and the Lycaonians, whom even he himself has omitted. But why has he
placed in the interior the Chalybes, whom the poet, as we
have shown, calls Halizoni? It would have been better to
divide them, and to place one portion of them on the sea-coast,
and another in the inland parts. The same division ought to
be made of the Cappadocians and Cilicians. But Ephorus
does not even mention the former, and speaks only of the
Cilicians on the sea-coast. The subjects, then, of Antipater of
Derbe, the Homonadeis, and many other tribes contiguous
to the Pisidians,
“‘men, who know not the sea, nor have ever eaten food seasoned with
where are they to be placed? Nor does he say whether the
Lydians and the Meonians are two nations or the same nation, or whether they live separately by themselves or are
comprehended in another tribe. For it was impossible for
Ephorus to be ignorant of so celebrated a nation, and does he
not, by passing it over in silence, appear to omit a most important fact?
But who are ‘the mixed nations’? For we cannot
say that he either named or omitted others, besides those already mentioned, whom we should call mixed nations. Nor,
indeed, should we say that they were a part of those nations
whom he has either mentioned or omitted. For if they were
a mixed people, still the majority constituted them either
Greeks or Barbarians. We know nothing of a third mixed
But how (according to Ephorus) are there three tribes
of Greeks who inhabit the peninsula? Is it because anciently the Athenians and Ionians were the same people? In that
case the Dorians and the Æolians should be considered as the
same nation, and then there would be (only) two tribes (and
not three, inhabiting the peninsula). But if, following modern
practice, we are to distinguish nations according to dialects,
there will be four nations, as there are four dialects. But
this peninsula is inhabited, especially if we adopt the division
by Ephorus, not only by Ionians, but also by Athenians, as
we have shown in the account of each particular place.
It was worth while to controvert the positions of Ephorus,
Apollodorus however disregards all this, and adds a seventeenth to the sixteen nations, namely, the Galatians; although
it is well to mention this, yet it is not required in a discussion
of what Ephorus relates or omits; Apollodorus has assigned
as the reason of' the omission, that all these nations settled
in the peninsula subsequently to the time of Ephorus.
Passing then to Homer, Apollodorus is correct in saying that there was a great intermixture and confusion among
the barbarous nations, from the Trojan war to the present time,
on account of the changes which had taken place; for some
nations had an accession of others, some were extinct or dispersed, or had coalesced together.
But he is mistaken in assigning two reasons why the poet
does not mention some nations, namely, either because the
place was not then occupied by the particular people, or because they were comprehended in another tribe. Neither of
these reasons could induce him to be silent respecting Cappadocia or Cataonia, or Lycaonia itself, for we have nothing of
the kind in history relating to these countries. It is ridiculous to be anxious to find excuses why Homer has omitted to
speak of Cappadocia [Cataonia] and Lycaonia, and not to
inform us why Ephorus omitted them, particularly as the proposed object of Apollodorus was to examine and discuss the
opinions of Ephorus; and to tell us why Homer mentions
Mæonians instead of Lydians, and also not to remark that
Ephorus has not omitted to mention either Lydians or Mæonians.259
Apollodorus remarks, that Homer mentions certain unknown nations, and he is right in specifying Caucones, Solymi,
Ceteii, Leleges, and the Cilicians from the plain of Thebe;
but the Halizones are a fiction of his own, or rather of those
who, not knowing who the Halizones were, frequently altered
the mode of writing the name, and invented the existence of
mines of silver and of many other mines, all of which are
With this vain intention they collected the stories related
by the Scepsian, (Demetrius,) and taken from Callisthenes
and other writers, who did not clear them from false notions
respecting the Halizones; for example, the wealth of Tantalus and of the Pelopidæ was derived, it is said, from the mines
about Phrygia and Sipylus; that of Cadmus from the mines
about Thrace and Mount Pangæum; that of Priam from the
gold mines at Astyra, near Abydos (of which at present there
are small remains, yet there is a large quantity of matter ejected, and the excavations are proofs of former workings); that
of Midas from the mines about Mount Bermium; that of
Gyges, Alyattes, and Crœsus, from the mines in Lydia and
the small deserted city between Atarneus and Pergamum,
where are the sites of exhausted mines.260
We may impute another fault to Apollodorus, that
although he frequently censures modern writers for introducing new readings at variance with the meaning of Homer,
yet in this instance he not only neglects his own advice, but
actually unites together places which are not so represented
(For example), Xanthus the Lydian says, that after the
Trojan times the Phrygians came from Europe (into Asia)
and the left (western) side of the Euxine, and that their leader Scamandrius conducted them from the Berecynti and Ascania. Apollodorus adds, that Homer mentions the same
Ascania as Xanthus,
“‘Phorcys and the divine Ascanius led the Phrygians from the distant
If this be so, the migration (from Europe to Asia) must be
later than the Trojan war; but in the Trojan war the auxiliaries mentioned by the poet came from the opposite continent,
from the Berecynti and Ascania. Who then were the Phrygians,
“‘who were then encamped on the banks of the Sangarius,’”
when Priam says,
“‘And I joined them with these troops as an auxiliary’?262
And how came Priam to send for the Phrygians from among
the Berecynti, between whom and himself no compact existed,
and pass over the people who were contiguous to him, and
whose ally he formerly had been?
Apollodorus, after having spoken of the Phrygians in this
manner, introduces an account concerning the Mysians which
contradicts this. He says that there is a village of Mysia
called Ascania, near a lake of the same name,263
out of which
issues the river Ascanius, mentioned by Euphorion:264
“‘near the waters of the Mysian Ascanius;’”
and by Alexander of Ætolia:
“‘they who dwell on the stream of Ascanius, on the brink of the Ascanian
lake, where lived Dolion, the son of Silenus and Melia.’”
The district, he says, about Cyzicus, on the road to Miletopolis, is called Dolionis and Mysia.
If this is the case, and if it is confirmed by existing places
and by the poets, what prevented Homer, when he mentioned
this Ascania, from mentioning the Ascania also of which
I have already spoken of these places in the description of
Mysia and Phrygia, and shall here conclude the discussion.
IT remains for me to describe the island Cyprus, which
adjoins this peninsula on the south. I have already said, that
the sea comprised between Egypt, Phœnice, Syria, and the
remainder of the coast as far as that opposite to Rhodes, con-
sists, so to say, of the Egyptian and Pamphylian seas and
the sea along the Bay of Issus.
In this sea lies the island Cyprus, having its northern side
approaching to Cilicia Tracheia, and here also it approaches
nearest to the continent; on the east it is washed by the Bay
of Issus, on the west by the Pamphylian sea, and on the
south by that of Egypt. The latter sea is confluent on the
west with the Libyan and Carpathian seas. On its southern
and eastern parts is Egypt, and the succeeding tract of coast
as far as Seleucia and Issus. On the north is Cyprus, and
the Pamphylian sea.
The Pamphylian sea is bounded on the north by the extremities of Cilicia Tracheia, of Pamphylia, and of Lycia as far
as the territory opposite to Rhodes; on the west, by the island
of Rhodes; on the east, by the part of Cyprus near Paphos,
and the Acamas; on the south, it unites with the Egyptian
The circumference of Cyprus is 3420 stadia, including
the winding of the bays. Its length from Cleides265
to a traveller on land proceeding from east to west,
is 1400 stadia.
The Cleides are two small islands lying in front of Cyprus
on the eastern side, at the distance of 700 stadia from the
The Acamas is a promontory with two paps, and upon it
is a large forest. It is situated at the western part of the
island, but extends towards the north, approaching very near
Selinus in Cilicia Tracheia, for the passage across is only
1000 stadia; to Side in Pamphylia the passage is 1600 stadia,
and to the Chelidoniæ (islands) 1900 stadia.
The figure of the whole island is oblong, and in some places
on the sides, which define its breadth, there are isthmuses.
We shall describe the several parts of the island briefly, beginning from the point nearest to the continent.
We have said before, that opposite to Anemyrium, a
promontory of Cilicia Tracheia, is the extremity of Cyprus,
namely, the promontory of Crommyon,268
at the distance of 350
From the cape, keeping the island on the right hand, and
the continent on the left, the voyage to the Cleides in a straight
line towards north and east is a distance of 700 stadia.
In the interval is the city Lapathus,269
with a harbour and
dockyards; it was founded by Laconians and Praxander.
Opposite to it was Nagidus. Then follows Aphrodisium;270
here the island is narrow, for over the mountains to Salamis271
are 70 stadia. Next is the sea-beach of the Achæans; here
Teucer, the founder of Salamis in Cyprus, being it is said
banished by his father Telamon, first disembarked. Then
follows the city Carpasia,272
with a harbour. It is situated opposite to the promontory Sarpedon.273
From Carpasia there is
a transit across the isthmus of 30 stadia to the Carpasian
islands and the southern sea; next are a promontory and a
mountain. The name of the promontory is Olympus, and
upon it is a temple of Venus Acræa, not to be approached
nor seen by women.
Near and in front lie the Cleides, and many other islands;
next are the Carpasian islands, and after these Salamis, the
birth-place of Aristus the historian; then Arsinoë, a city with
a harbour; next Leucolla, another harbour; then the promontory Pedalium, above which is a hill, rugged, lofty, and
table-shaped, sacred to Venus; to this hill from Cleides are
680 stadia. Then to Citium274
the navigation along the coast
is for the greater part difficult and among bays. Citium has
a close harbour. It is the birth-place of Zeno, the chief of
the Stoic sect, and of Apollonius the physician. Thence to
Berytus are 1500 stadia. Next is the city Amathus,275
between Citium and Berytus, a small city called Palæa, and
a pap-shaped mountain, Olympus; then follows Curias,276
promontory of a peninsular form, to which from Throni277
700 stadia; then the city Curium,278
with a harbour, founded
Here we may observe the negligence of the author, whether
Hedylus, or whoever he was, of the elegiac lines which begin,
“‘We hinds, sacred to Phœbus, hither came in our swift course; we traversed the broad sea, to avoid the arrows of our pursuers.’”
He says, that the hinds ran down from the Corycian heights,
and swam across from the Cilician coast to the beach near
Curias, and adds,
“‘That it was a cause of vast surprise to men to think how we scoured
the trackless waves, aided by the vernal Zephyrs.’”
For it is possible (by doubling the cape) to sail round from
Corycus to the beach of Curias, but not with the assistance of
the west wind, nor by keeping the island on the right, but on'
the left hand; and there is no (direct) passage across.
At Curium is the commencement of the voyage towards the
west in the direction of Rhodes; then immediately follows a
promontory, whence those who touch with their hands the
altar of Apollo are precipitated. Next are Treta,279
and Palepaphus, situated about 10 stadia from the sea, with a
harbour and an ancient temple of the Paphian Venus; then
a promontory with an anchorage, and another Arsinoë, which also has an anchorage, a temple, and a
grove. At a little distance from the sea is Hierocepis.282
is Paphos, founded by Agapenor, with a harbour and temples,
which are fine buildings. It is distant from Palæpaphus 60
stadia by land. Along this road the annual sacred processions
are conducted, when a great concourse both of men and women
resort thither from other cities. Some writers say, that from
Paphos to Alexandreia are 3600 stadia. Next after Paphos
is the Acamas; then after the Acamas the voyage is easterly
to Arsinoë a city, and to the grove of Jupiter; then Soli283
city, where there is a harbour, a river, and a temple of Venus
and Isis. It was founded by Phalerus and Acamas, who
were Athenians. The inhabitants are called Solii. Stasanor,
one of the companions of Alexander, was a native of Soli, and
was honoured with a chief command. Above Soli in the interior is Limenia a city, then follows the promontory of Crommyon.
But why should we be surprised at poets, and those particularly who study modes of expression only, when we compare them with Damastes? The latter gives the length of the
island from north to south, from Hierocepia, as he says, to
Nor does even Eratosthenes give it exactly. For, when
he censures Damastes, he says that Hierocepia is not on the
north, but on the south. Yet neither is it on the south, but
on the west, since it lies on the western side, where are situated
Paphos and Acamas.
Such then is the position of Cyprus.
It is not inferior in fertility to any one of the islands,
for it produces good wine and oil, and sufficient corn to supply the wants of the inhabitants. At Tamassus there are
abundant mines of copper, in which the calcanthus is found,
and rust of copper, useful for its medicinal properties.
Eratosthenes says, that anciently the plains abounded with
timber, and were covered with forests, which prevented cultivation; the mines were of some service towards clearing the
surface, for trees were cut down to smelt the copper and silver.
Besides this, timber was required for the construction of fleets,
as the sea was now navigated with security and by a large
naval force; but when even these means were insufficient to
check the growth of timber in the forests, permission was
given to such as were able and inclined, to cut down the trees
and to hold the land thus cleared as their own property, free
from all payments.
Formerly the Cyprian cities were governed by tyrants,
but from the time that the Ptolemaic kings were masters of
Egypt, Cyprus also came into their power, the Romans frequently affording them assistance. But when the last Ptolemy
that was king, brother of the father of Cleopatra, the queen of
Egypt in our time, had conducted himself in a disorderly
manner, and was ungrateful to his benefactors, he was deposed, and the Romans took possession of the island, which
became a Prætorian province by itself.
The chief author of the deposition of the king was Pub.
Claudius Pulcher, who having fallen into the hands of the
Cilician pirates, at that time at the height of their power, and
a ransom being demanded of him, despatched a message to
the king, entreating him to send it for his release. The king
sent a ransom, but of so small an amount, that the pirates
disdained to accept it, and returned it, but they dismissed
Pulcher without any payment. After his escape, he remembered what he owed to both parties; and when he became
tribune of the people, he had sufficient influence to have Mar-
cus Cato sent to deprive the king of the possession of Cyprus.
The latter put himself to death before the arrival of Cato,
who, coming soon afterwards, took possession of Cyprus,
sold the king's property, and conveyed the money to the public
treasury of the Romans.
From this time the island became, as it is at present, a
Prætorian province. During a short intervening period Antony had given it to Cleopatra and her sister Arsinoë, but
upon his death all his arrangements were annulled.