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They copulate like horses, and produce young chiefly in the spring. It is the season for the male, when he is in heat and is ferocious. At this period he discharges some fatty matter through an opening in the temples. It is the season also for the females, when this same passage is open, Eighteen months is the longest, and sixteen the shortest period that they go with young. The dam suckles her young six years, Many of them live as long as men who attain to the greatest longevity, some even to the protracted age of two hundred years.

They are subject to many diseases, which are difficult to be cured. A remedy for diseases of the eye is to bathe them with cow's milk. For complaints in general, they drink dark wine. In cases of wounds, they drink butter; for it draws out iron instruments, Their sores are fomented with swine's flesh.

Onesicritus says, that they live three hundred years, and rarely five hundred; and that they go with young ten years. He and other writers say, that they are larger and stronger than the African elephants. They will pull down with their trunks battlements, and uproot trees, standing erect upon their bind feet.

According to Nearchus, traps are laid in the hunting grounds, at certain places where roads meet; the wild elephants are forced into the 'oils by the tame elephants, which are stronger, and guided by a driver. They become so tame and docile, that they learn even to throw a stone at a mark, to use military weapons, and to be excellent swimmers. A chariot drawn by elephants is esteemed a most important possession, and they are driven without bridles.1

A woman is greatly honoured who receives from her lover a present of an elephant, but this does not agree with what he said before, that a horse and an elephant are the property of kings alone.

1 The passage is corrupt. Groskurd proposes to add the word ὥς before καὶ καμήλους, ‘as camels.’ Coraÿ changes the last word to ἀχαλίνους, which is adopted in the translation. See below, § 53.

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