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We shall better understand the position of the places about the above-mentioned mountainous tract, if we further examine the route which Alexander took from the Parthian territory to Bactriana, when he was in pursuit of Bessus. He came first to Ariana, next to the Drangæ, where he put to death Philotas, the son of Parmenio, having detected his traitorous intentions. He despatched persons to Ecbatana1 also to put the father to death as an accomplice in the conspiracy. It is said that these persons performed in eleven days, upon dromedaries, a journey of 30 or 40 days, and executed their business.

The Drangæ resemble the Persians in all other respects in their mode of life, except that they have little wine. Tin is found in the country.2

Alexander next went from the Drangæ to the Euergetæ,3 (to whom Cyrus gave this name,) and to the Arachoti; then through the territory of the Paropamisadæ at the setting of the Pleiad.4 It is a mountainous country, and at that time was covered with snow, so that the march was performed with difficulty. The numerous villages, however, on their march, which were well provided with everything except oil, afforded relief in their distress. On their left hand were the summits of the mountains.

The southern parts of the Paropamisus belong to India and Ariana; the northern parts towards the west belong to Bactriana [towards the east to Sogdiana * *5 Bactrian barbarians]. Having wintered there, with India above to the right hand, and having founded a city, he crossed the summits of the mountains into Bactriana. The road was bare of everything except a few trees of the bushy terminthus;6 the army was driven from want of food to eat the flesh of the beasts or burthen, and that in a raw state for want of firewood; but silphium grew in great abundance, which promoted the digestion of this raw food. Fifteen days after founding the city and leaving winter quarters, he came to Adrapsa7 (Darapsa?), a city of Bactriana.

1 Corresponding nearly with the present Hamadan.

2 None is said to be found there at the present day.

3 They were called Ariaspi; Cyrus, son of Cambyses, gave them the name Euergetæ, ‘benefactors,’ in consideration of the services which they had rendered in his expedition against the Scythians.

4 At the beginning of winter.

5 The text is corrupt; the words between brackets are supplied by Kramer's conjecture. See b. xi. c. xi. § 2.

6 Theophrastus, iv. 5. The Pistatia-nut tree.

7 Bamian, see b. xi. c. xi. § 2.

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