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Next is the Dnieper,1 a river navigable to the distance of 6002 stadia, and near to it another river, the Bog,3 and an island4 lying before the mouth of the Dnieper, which possesses a haven. After sailing up the Borysthenes5 200 stadia, you come to the city of like name with the river, which is likewise called Olbia;6 it is a great emporium and a foundation of the Milesians. Of the region lying inland from the coast we have described between the Dnieper and the Danube, the first portion is the Desert of the Getæ, then comes the Tyregetæ, after them the Jazyges Sarmatæ, and the Basilii, who are also called Urgi.7 Most of these people are nomades. However, a few of them pay attention to agriculture. These are said to inhabit the banks of the Danube, frequently even on both sides of the river. In the inland the Bastarnæ dwell, and confine with the Tyregetæ and the Germans; indeed, they may almost be said to be of the German stock. They are divided into many tribes, as some are called Atmoni, some Sidones, those who inhabit the island Peuce8 in the Danube, Peucini, and the most northern, Roxolani.9 These latter de- pasture the plains lying between the Don10 and the Dnieper. Indeed the whole of the northern regions with which we are acquainted, from Germany to the Caspian, is an extended plain. Whether any dwell still farther than the Roxolani is unknown to us. However, the Roxolani fought against the generals of Mithridates Eupator. Their leader was Tasius. They came as allies of Palacus, the son of Scilurus, and were considered good soldiers, but against the serried and well- armed phalanx every barbarous and light-armed tribe is ineffective. Thus they, although numbering fifty thousand men, could not withstand the six thousand arrayed by Diophantus, the general of Mithridates, but were almost all cut to pieces. They make use of helmets and breastplates made of untanned ox-hide. They bear wicker shields; and as weapons, lances, the bow, and the sword, such as most of the other barbarians do. The woollen tents of the nomades are fixed upon their chariots, in which they pass their lives. Their herds are scattered round their tents, and they live on the milk, the cheese, and the meat which they supply. They shift their quarters ever in search of pasture, changing the places they have exhausted for others full of grass. In the winter they encamp in the marshes near the Palus Mæotis,11 and in the summer on the plains.

1 The ancient Borysthenes.

2 Gossellin considers that Strabo wrote 1600 stadia, for at that distance from the sea there are cataracts which stop the ships that come from the sea.

3 Strabo's word is ῞υπανις. Gossellin observes that we should look for the ῞υπανις to the east of the Dnieper, while the Bog lies to the west of that river.

4 Gossellin identifies this island with the modern Berezan.

5 Now the Dnieper.

6 Olbia, or Olbiopolis, would, according to this measure, be about the junction of the Bog and Dnieper.

7 Mannert has attempted to read γεωοͅγοί, because Herodotus, book iv. chap. 18, has so termed those Scythians who cultivated their fields. Is it not possible that the Latin Regii was the word Strabo had in his mind?

8 Piczina.

9 Some MSS. read this name ῾πωξανοί, others ῾πωξανοι, and others ῾πωξοανοί, but whether there is any distinction to be drawn between these and the ῾πωξαλανοί of book ii. chap. v. § 7, is not to be ascertained.

10 The Tanais.

11 The Sea of Zabache.

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