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Philiscus lived by the wall. He took to his bed with acute fever on the first day and sweating ; night uncomfortable.

Second day. General exacerbation, later a small clyster moved the bowels well. A restful night.

Third day. Early and until mid-day he appeared to have lost the fever ; but towards evening acute fever with sweating ; thirst ; dry tongue ; black urine. An uncomfortable night, without sleep ; completely out of his mind.

Fourth day. All symptoms exacerbated ; black urine ; a more comfortable night, and urine of a better colour.

Fifth day. About mid-day slight epistaxis of unmixed blood. Urine varied, with scattered, round particles suspended in it, resembling semen ; they did not settle. On the application of a suppository the patient passed, with flatulence, scanty excreta. A distressing night, snatches of sleep, irrational talk ; extremities everywhere cold, and would not get warm again ; black urine ; snatches of sleep towards dawn ; speechless ; cold sweat ; extremities livid. About mid-day on the sixth day the patient died. The breathing throughout, as though he were recollecting to do it,1 was rare and large. Spleen raised in a round swelling ; cold sweats all the time. The exacerbations on even days.


Silenus lived on Broadway near the place of Eualcidas. After over-exertion, drinking, and exercises

[p. 189] at the wrong time he was attacked by fever. He began by having pains in the loins, with heaviness in the head and tightness of the neck. From the bowels on the first day there passed copious discharges of bilious matter, unmixed, frothy, and highly coloured. Urine black, with a black sediment ; thirst ; tongue dry ; no sleep at night.

Second day. Acute fever, stools more copious, thinner, frothy ; urine black ; uncomfortable night ; slightly out of his mind.

Third day. General exacerbation ; oblong tightness2 of the hypochondrium, soft underneath, extending on both sides to the navel ; stools thin, blackish ; urine turbid, blackish ; no sleep at night ; much rambling, laughter, singing ; no power of restraining himself.

Fourth day. Same symptoms.

Fifth day. Stools unmixed, bilious, smooth, greasy ; urine thin, transparent ; lucid intervals.

Sixth day. Slight sweats about the head ; extremities cold and livid ; much tossing ; nothing passed from the bowels ; urine suppressed ; acute fever.

Seventh day. Speechless ; extremities would no longer get warm ; no urine.

Eighth day. Cold sweat all over ; red spots with sweat, round, small like acne, which persisted without subsiding. From the bowels with slight stimulus

[p. 191] there came a copious discharge of solid stools, thin,3 as it were unconcocted, painful. Urine painful and irritating. Extremities grow a little warmer ; fitful sleep ; coma ; speechlessness ; thin, transparent urine.

Ninth day. Same symptoms.

Tenth day. Took no drink ; coma ; fitful sleep. Discharges from the bowels similar ; had a copious discharge of thickish urine, which on standing left a farinaceous, white deposit ; extremities again cold.

Eleventh day. Death.

From the beginning the breath in this case was throughout rare and large. Continuous throbbing of the hypochondrium ; age about twenty years.


Herophon had acute fever ; scanty stools with tenesmus at the beginning, afterwards becoming thin, bilious and fairly frequent. No sleep ; urine black and thin.

Fifth day. Deafness early in the day ; general exacerbation ; spleen swollen ; tension of the hypochondrium ; scanty black stools ; delirium.

Sixth day. Wandering talk ; at night sweat and chill ; the wandering persisted.

Seventh Day. Chill all over ; thirst ; out of his mind. During the night he was rational, and slept.

Eighth day. Fever ; spleen lessened ; quite rational ; pain at first in the groin, on the side of the spleen ; then the pains extended to both legs. Night comfortable ; urine of a better colour, with a slight deposit.

Ninth day. Sweat, crisis, intermission.

[p. 193] On the fifth day after the crisis the patient relapsed. Immediately the spleen swelled ; acute fever ; return of deafness. On the third day after the relapse the spleen grew less and the deafness diminished, but there was pain in the legs. During the night he sweated. The crisis was about the seventeenth day. There was no delirium during the relapse.


In Thasos the wife of Philinus gave birth to a daughter. The lochial discharge was normal, and the mother was doing well when on the fourteenth day after delivery she was seized with fever attended with rigor. At first she suffered in the stomach and the right hypochondrium. Pains in the genital organs. The discharge ceased. By a pessary these troubles were eased, but pains persisted in the head, neck and loins. No sleep ; extremities cold ; thirst ; bowels burnt ; scanty stools ; urine thin, and at first colourless.

Sixth day. Much delirium at night, followed by recovery of reason.

Seventh day. Thirst ; stools scanty, bilious, highly coloured.

Eighth day. Rigor ; acute fever ; many painful convulsions ; much delirium. The application of a suppository made her keep going to stool, and there were copious motions with a bilious flux. No sleep.

Ninth day. Convulsions.

Tenth day. Lucid intervals.

Eleventh day. Slept ; complete recovery of her memory, followed quickly by renewed delirium.

[p. 195] A copious passing of urine with convulsions--her attendants seldom reminding her--which was white and thick, like urine with a sediment and then shaken ; it stood for a long time without forming a sediment ; colour and consistency like that of the urine of cattle. Such was the nature of the urine that I myself saw.

About the fourteenth day there were twitchings over all the body ; much wandering, with lucid intervals followed quickly by renewed delirium. About the seventeenth day she became speechless.

Twentieth day. Death.


The wife of Epicrates, who lay sick near the founder,4 when near her delivery was seized with severe rigor without, it was said, becoming warm, and the same symptoms occurred on the following day. On the third day she gave birth to a daughter, and the delivery was in every respect normal. On the second day after the delivery she was seized with acute fever, pain at the stomach and in the genitals. A pessary relieved these symptoms, but there was pain in the head, neck and loins. No sleep. From the bowels passed scanty stools, bilious, thin and unmixed. Urine thin and blackish. Delirium on the night of the sixth day from the day the fever began.

Seventh day. All symptoms exacerbated ; sleeplessness ; delirium ; thirst ; bilious, highly-coloured stools.

Eighth day. Rigor ; more sleep.

Ninth day. The same symptoms.

[p. 197] Tenth day. Severe pains in the legs ; pain again at the stomach ; heaviness in the head ; no delirium ; more sleep ; constipation.

Eleventh day. Urine of better colour, with a thick deposit ; was easier.

Fourteenth day. Rigor ; acute fever.

Fifteenth day. Vomited fairly frequently bilious, yellow vomit ; sweated without fever ; at night, however, acute fever ; urine thick, with a white sediment.

Sixteenth day. Exacerbation ; an uncomfortable night ; no sleep ; delirium.

Eighteenth day. Thirst ; tongue parched ; no sleep ; much delirium ; pain in the legs.

About the twentieth day. Slight rigors in the early morning ; coma ; quiet sleep ; scanty, bilious, black vomits ; deafness at night.

About the twenty-first day. Heaviness all over the left side, with pain ; slight coughing ; urine thick, turbid, reddish, no sediment on standing. In other respects easier ; no fever. From the beginning she had pain in the throat ; redness ; uvula drawn back ; throughout there persisted an acrid flux, smarting, and salt.

About the twenty-seventh day. No fever ; sediment in urine ; some pain in the side.

About the thirty-first day. Attacked by fever ; bowels disordered and bilious.

Fortieth day. Scanty, bilious vomits.

Eightieth day. Complete crisis with cessation of fever.


Cleanactides, who lay sick above the temple of Heracles, was seized by an irregular fever. He had

[p. 199] at the beginning pains in the head and the left side, and in the other parts pains like those caused by fatigue. The exacerbations of the fever were varied and irregular ; sometimes there were sweats, sometimes there were not. Generally the exacerbations manifested themselves most on the critical days.

About the twenty-fourth day. Pain in the hands ; bilious, yellow vomits, fairly frequent, becoming after a while like verdigris ; general relief.

About the thirtieth day. Epistaxis from both nostrils began, and continued, irregular and slight, until the crisis. All the time he suffered no thirst, nor lack of appetite or sleep. Urine thin, and not colourless.

About the fortieth day. Urine reddish, and with an abundant, red deposit. Was eased. Afterwards the urine varied, sometimes having, sometimes not having, a sediment.

Sixtieth day. Urine had an abundant sediment, white and smooth ; general improvement ; fever intermitted ; urine again thin but of good colour.

Seventieth day. Fever, which intermitted for ten days.

Eightieth day. Rigor ; attacked by acute fever ; much sweat ; in the urine a red, smooth sediment. A complete crisis.


Meton was seized with fever, and painful heaviness in the loins.

Second day. After a fairly copious draught of water had his bowels well moved.

Third day. Heaviness in the head ; stools thin, bilious, rather red.

[p. 201] Fourth day. General exacerbation ; slight epistaxis twice from the right nostril. An uncomfortable night ; stools as on the third day ; urine rather black ; had a rather black cloud floating in it, spread out, which did not settle.

Fifth day. Violent epistaxis of unmixed blood from the left nostril ; sweat ; crisis. After the crisis sleeplessness ; wandering ; urine thin and rather black. His head was bathed ; sleep ; reason restored. The patient suffered no relapse, but after the crisis bled several times from the nose.


Erasinus lived by the gully of Boétes. Was seized with fever after supper ; a troubled night.

First day. Quiet, but the night was painful.

Second day. General exacerbation ; delirium at night.

Third day. Pain and much delirium.

Fourth day. Very uncomfortable ; no sleep at night ; dreams and wandering. Then worse symptoms, of a striking and significant character ; fear and discomfort.

Fifth day. Early in the morning was composed, and in complete possession of his senses. But long before mid-day was madly delirious ; could not restrain himself ; extremities cold and rather livid ; urine suppressed ; died about sunset.

In this patient the fever was throughout accompanied by sweat ; the hypochondria were swollen, distended and painful. Urine black, with round, suspended particles which did not settle. There were solid discharges from the bowels. Thirst

[p. 203] throughout not very great. Many convulsions with sweating about the time of death.


Crito, in Thasos, while walking about, was seized with a violent pain in the great toe. He took to bed the same day with shivering and nausea ; regained a little warmth ; at night was delirious.

Second day. Swelling of the whole foot, which was rather red about the ankle, and distended ; black blisters ; acute fever ; mad delirium. Alvine discharges unmixed, bilious and rather frequent. He died on the second day from the commencement.


The man of Clazomenae, who lay sick by the well of Phrynichides, was seized with fever. Pain at the beginning in head, neck and loins, followed immediately by deafness. No sleep ; seized with acute fever ; hypochondrium swollen, but not very much ; distension ; tongue dry.

Fourth day. Delirium at night.

Fifth day. Painful.

Sixth day. All symptoms exacerbated.

About the eleventh day slight improvement. From the beginning to the fourteenth day there were from the bowels thin discharges, copious, of a watery biliousness ; they were well supported by the patient. Then the bowels were constipated. Urine throughout thin, but of good colour. It had much cloud spread through it, which did not settle in a sediment. About the sixteenth day the urine was a little thicker, and had a slight sediment.

[p. 205] The patient became a little easier, and was more rational.

Seventeenth day. Urine thin again ; painful swellings by both ears. No sleep ; wandering ; pain in the legs.

Twentieth day. A crisis left the patient free from fever ; no sweating ; quite rational. About the twenty-seventh day violent pain in the right hip, which quickly ceased. The swellings by the ears neither subsided nor suppurated, but continued painful. About the thirty-first day diarrhéa with copious, watery discharges and signs of dysentery. Urine thick ; the swellings by the ears subsided.

Fortieth day. Pain in the right eye ; sight rather impaired ; recovery.


The wife of Dromeades, after giving birth to a daughter, when everything had gone normally, on the second day was seized with rigor ; acute fever. On the first day she began to feel pain in the region of the hypochondrium ; nausea ; shivering ; restless ; and on the following days did not sleep. Respiration rare, large, interrupted at once as by an inspiration.5

Second day from rigor. Healthy action of the bowels. Urine thick, white, turbid, like urine which has settled, stood a long time, and then been stirred up. It did not settle. No sleep at night.

Third day. At about mid-day rigor ; acute fever ; urine similar ; pain in the hypochondrium ; nausea ; an uncomfortable night without sleep ; a cold sweat all over the body, but the patient quickly recovered heat.

[p. 207] Fourth day. Slight relief of the pains about the hypochondrium ; painful heaviness of the head ; somewhat comatose ; slight epistaxis ; tongue dry ; thirst ; scanty urine, thin and oily ; snatches of sleep.

Fifth day. Thirst ; nausea ; urine similar ; no movement of the bowels ; about mid-day much delirium, followed quickly by lucid intervals ; rose, but grew somewhat comatose ; slight chilliness ; slept at night ; was delirious.

Sixth day. In the morning had a rigor ; quickly recovered heat ; sweated all over ; extremities cold ; was delirious ; respiration large and rare. After a while convulsions began from the head, quickly followed by death.


A man dined when hot and drank too much. During the night he vomited everything ; acute fever ; pain in the right hypochondrium ; inflammation, soft underneath, from the inner part6; an uncomfortable night ; urine at the first thick and red ; on standing it did not settle ; tongue dry ; no great thirst.

Fourth day. Acute fever ; pains all over.

Fifth day. Passed much smooth, oily urine ; acute fever.

Sixth day. In the afternoon much delirium. No sleep at night.

Seventh day. General exacerbation ; urine similar ; much rambling ; could not restrain himself ; on stimulation the bowels passed watery, disturbed discharges, with worms. An uncomfortable night, with rigor in the morning. Acute fever. Hot sweat, and the patient seemed to lose his fever ;

[p. 209] little sleep, followed by chilliness ; expectoration. In the evening much delirium, and shortly afterwards he vomited black, scanty, bilious vomits.

Ninth day. Chill ; much wandering ; no sleep.

Tenth day. Legs painful ; general exacerbation ; wandering.

Eleventh day. Death.


A woman lying sick by the shore, who was three months gone with child, was seized with fever, and immediately began to feel pains in the loins.

Third day. Pain in the neck and in the head, and in the region of the right collar-bone. Quickly she lost her power of speech, the right arm was paralyzed, with a convulsion, after the manner of a stroke ; completely delirious. An uncomfortable night, without sleep ; bowels disordered with bilious, unmixed, scanty stools.

Fourth day. Her speech was recovered, but was indistinct ; convulsions ; pains of the same parts remained ; painful swelling in the hypochondrium ; no sleep ; utter delirium ; bowels disordered ; urine thin, and not of good colour.

Fifth day. Acute fever ; pain in the hypochondrium ; utter delirium ; bilious stools. At night sweated ; was without fever.

Sixth day. Rational ; general relief, but pain remained about the left collar-bone ; thirst ; urine thin ; no sleep.

Seventh day. Trembling ; some coma ; slight delirium ; pains in the region of the collar-bone and left upper arm remained ; other symptoms

[p. 211] relieved ; quite rational. For three days there was an intermission of fever.

Eleventh day. Relapse ; rigor ; attack of fever. But about the fourteenth day the patient vomited bilious, yellow matter fairly frequently ; sweated ; a crisis took off the fever.


Melidia, who lay sick by the temple of Hera, began to suffer violent pain in the head, neck and chest. Immediately she was attacked by acute fever, and there followed a slight menstrual flow. There were continuous pains in all these parts.

Sixth day. Coma ; nausea ; shivering ; flushed cheeks ; slight delirium.

Seventh day. Sweat ; intermittence of fever ; the pains persisted ; relapse ; snatches of sleep ; urine throughout of good colour but thin ; stools thin, bilious, irritating, scanty, black and of bad odour ; sediment in the urine white and smooth ; sweating.

Eleventh day. Perfect crisis.

1 The patient seemed to forget the necessity of breathing, and then to remember it and to breathe consciously.

2 The word ὑπολάπαρος2 is often applied to ς1ύντας1ις2 or ἔντας1ις2 of the hypochondria. Galen (see Littré on Epidemics III, Case II, Vol. III, p. 34) says that it means "without bulk," or "without swelling." This is possible if the word is etymologically connected with λαπάζω. The translators are not very precise. Littré has "sans beaucoup de rénitence," "sans tumeur," "sans gonflement," "sans grand gonflement ;" Adams has "empty," "loose," "softish." In Epidemics I, Case XII, occurs the phrase φλεγμονὴ ὑπολάπαρος2 ἐκ τοῦ ἔς1ω μέρεος2, from which it seems that the prefix ὑπο- means "underneath," not "rather." "Empty underneath" seems the primary meaning, and suggests a tightness, or inflammation, with nothing hard and bulky immediately beneath the surface to cause the tightness or inflammation. Perhaps the word also suggests the tenderness often found in the hypochoudria of malaria patients.

3 I take λεπτός2 here to mean "thinner than usual, than might have been expected," a meaning it has once or twice in the Hippocratic Corpus. It might also mean "consisting of small pieoes." See on Epidemics III, Case II (first series).

4 I. e. near the statue of the founder of the city, or near the temple of the god who presided over the founding of the city.

5 As we might say, "with a catch in it."

6 See note, p. 188.

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