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XVI. And I believe that of all the powers1 none hold less sway in the body than cold and heat. My reasons are these. So long as the hot and cold in the body are mixed up together, they cause no pain. For the hot is tempered and moderated by the cold, and the cold by the hot. But when either is entirely separated from the other, then it causes pain. And at that season, when cold comes upon a man and causes him some pain, for that very reason internal heat first is present quickly and spontaneously, without needing any help or preparation. The result is the same, whether men be diseased or in health. For instance, if a man in health will cool his body in winter, either by a cold bath or in any other way, the more he cools it (provided that his body is not entirely frozen) the more he becomes hotter than before when he puts his clothes on and enters his shelter. Again, if he will make himself thoroughly hot by means of either a hot bath of a large fire, and afterwards wear the same clothes and stay in the same place as he did when chilled, he feels far colder and besides more shivery than before. Or if a man fan himself because of the stifling heat and make coolness for himself, on ceasing to do this in this way he will feel ten times the stifling heat felt by one who does nothing of the sort.

Now the following is much stronger evidence still. All who go afoot through snow or great cold, and become over-chilled in feet, hands or head, suffer at

[p. 45] night very severely from burning and tingling when they come into a warm place and wrap up ; in some cases blisters arise like those caused by burning in fire. But it is not until they are warmed that they experience these symptoms. So ready is cold to pass into heat and heat into cold. I could give a multitude of other proofs. But in the case of sick folk, is it not those who have suffered from shivering in whom breaks out the most acute fever? And not only is it not powerful, but after a while does it not subside, generally without doing harm all the time it remains, hot as it is? And passing through all the body it ends in most cases in the feet, where the shivering and chill were most violent and lasted unusually long. Again, when the fever disappears with the breaking out of the perspiration, it cools the patient so that he is far colder than if he had never been attacked at all. What important or serious consequence, therefore, could come from that thing on which quickly supervenes in this way its exact opposite, spontaneously annulling its effect?2 Or what need has it of elaborate treatment?

1 Or "properties."

2 Or "power."

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