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XXII. I hold that it is also necessary to know which diseased states arise from powers and which from structures. What I mean is roughly that a "power" is an intensity and strength of the humours, while "structures" are the conformations to be found in the human body, some of which are hollow, tapering1 from wide to narrow ; some are expanded, some hard and round, some broad and suspended, some stretched, some long, some close in texture, some loose in texture and fleshy, some spongy and porous. Now which structure is best adapted to draw and attract to itself fluid from the rest of the body, the hollow and expanded, the hard and round, or the hollow and tapering? I take it that the best adapted is the broad hollow that tapers. One should learn this thoroughly from unenclosed objects2 that can be

[p. 59] seen. For example, if you open the mouth wide you will draw in no fluid ; but if you protrude and contract it, compressing the lips, and then insert a tube, you can easily draw up any liquid you wish. Again, cupping instruments, which are broad and tapering, are so constructed on purpose to draw and attract blood from the flesh. There are many other instruments of a similar nature. Of the parts within the human frame, the bladder, the head, and the womb are of this structure. These obviously attract powerfully, and are always full of a fluid from without. Hollow and expanded parts are especially adapted for receiving fluid that has flowed into them, but are not so suited for attraction. Round solids will neither attract fluid nor receive it when it has flowed into them, for it would slip round and find no place on which to rest. Spongy, porous parts, like the spleen, lungs and breasts, will drink up readily what is in contact with them, and these parts especially harden and enlarge on the addition of fluid. They will not be evacuated every day, as are bowels, where the fluid is inside, while the bowels themselves contain it externally ; but when one of these parts drinks up the fluid and takes it to itself, the porous hollows, even the small ones, are every-where filled, and the soft, porous part becomes hard and close, and neither digests nor discharges. This happens because of the nature of its structure. When wind and flatulence are produced in the body, the

[p. 61] rumbling noise naturally occurs in the hollow, broad parts, such as the bowels and the chest. For when the flatulence does not fill a part so as to be at rest, but moves and changes its position, it cannot be but that thereby noise and perceptible movements take place. In soft, fleshy parts occur numbness and obstructions, such as happen in apoplexy. And when flatulence meets a broad, resisting body, and rushes on it, and this happens by nature to be neither strong so as to endure its violence without harm, nor soft and porous so as to give way and admit it, but tender, fleshy, full of blood, and close, like the liver, because it is close and broad it resists without yielding, while the flatulence being checked increases and becomes stronger, dashing violently against the obstacle. But owing to its tenderness and the blood it contains, the part cannot be free from pain, and this is why the sharpest and most frequent pains occur in this region, and abscesses and tumours are very common. Violent pain, but much less severe, is also felt under the diaphragm. For the diaphragm is an extended, broad and resisting substance, of a stronger and more sinewy texture, and so there is less pain. But here too occur pains and tumours.

1 Or "contracting."

2 i. e. objects that are not concealed, as are the internal organs.

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