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12. MANUSCRIPTS.

None of our MSS. are very old, but the oldest are far superior to the later, both in readings and in dialect. There is no regular canon, and no recognized order; each independent MS. seems to represent a different "collection" of Hippocratic works. This fact fits in well with the theory that the nucleus of the Corpus was the library (or the remains of it) of the Hippocratic medical school at Cos.

θ Vindobonensis med. IV., tenth century. Our oldest MS., containing : περὶ τῶν ἔντος παθῶν. περὶ παθῶν. περὶ ἱερῆς νον́ς1ου. περὶ νούς1ων. περὶ νούς1ων ?? περὶ νούς1ων ??. περὶ διαίτης ??. περὶ διαίτης ??. περὶ διαίτης ?? (with περὶ ἐνυπνίων). περὶ γυναικείων ??. περὶ γυναικείων ??. περὶ γυναικείης φύς1ιος. Of some books parts are missing.

A Parisinus 2253, eleventh century. It contains:

[p. lxiv] Κωακαὶ προγνώς1εις. περὶ τροφῆς. περὶ πτις1άνης. περὶ χυμῶν. περὶ ὑγρῶν χρής1ιος. ἐπιβώμιος. περὶ τέχνης. περὶ φύς1ιος ἀνθρώπον. περὶ φυς1ῶν. περὶ τόπων τῶν κατὰ ἄνθρωπον. περὶ ἀρχαίης ἰητρικῆς. ἐπιδημιῶν ??. An excellent MS., the use of which has transformed our Hippocratic text. There are four or five correcting hands.

B Laurentianus 74, 7, eleventh or twelfth century. It contains: κατ̓ ἰητρεῖον. περὶ ἀγμῶν. περὶ ἄρθρων. περὶ τῶν ἐν κεφαλῆ τρωμάτων. Two correcting hands.

V Vaticanus graecus 276, twelfth century. It contains: ὅρκος. νόμος. ἀφορις1μοί. προγνως1τικόν. περὶ διαίτης ὀξέων. κατ̓ ἰητρεῖον. περὶ ἀγμῶν. περὶ ἄρθρων. περὶ τῶν ἐν κεφαλῇ τρωμάτων. περὶ ἀέρων, ὑδάτων, τόπων. ἐπιδημιῶν ??. περὶ φύς1εως ἀνθρώπου. περὶ φύς1εως παιδίου. περὶ γονῆς. περὶ ἐπικυής1εως. περὶ ἑπταμήνου. περὶ ὀκταμήνου. περὶ παρθένων. περὶ γυναικείης φύς1ιος. περὶ ὀδοντοφυἲας. περὶ τόπων τῶν κατὰ ἄνθρωπον. γυναικείων ??. περὶ ἀφόρων. περὶ ἐπικυής1ιος (again). περὶ ἐγκατατομῆς παιδίου. περὶ ἰητροῦ. περὶ κρίς1εων. περὶ κραδίης. περὶ ς1αρκῶν. περὶ ἀδένων οὐλομελίης. περὶ ἀνατομῆς. ἐπις1τολαί. δόγμα Ἀθηναίων. ἐπιβώμιος. πρες1βευτικός.

M Marcianus Venetus 269, eleventh century. It contains: ὅρκος. νόμος. περὶ τέχνης. περὶ ἀρχαίης ἰητρικῆς. παραγγελίαι. περὶ εὐς1χημος1ύνης. περὶ φύς1εως ἀνθρώπου. περὶ γονῆς. περὶ φύς1εως παιδίον. περὶ ἄρθρων. περὶ χυμῶν. περὶ τροφῆς. περὶ ἑλκῶν. περὶ ἱερῆς νούς1ου. περὶ νούς1ων ??. περὶ νούς1ων ??. περὶ νούς1ων ??. περὶ νούς1ων ??. περὶ παθῶν. περὶ τῶν ἐντὸς παθῶν. περὶ διαίτης ??. περὶ διαίτης ??. περὶ διαίτης ??. περὶ ἐνυπνίων. περὶ ὄψιος. περὶ κρις1ίμων. ἀφορις1μοί. προγνως1τικόν. περὶ διαίτης ὀξέων. περὶ φυς1ῶν. μοχλικόν. περὶ ὀς1τἑων φύς1ιος. περὶ ἀγμῶν.

[p. lxv] κατ̓ ἰητρεῖον. περὶ ἐγκατατομῆς ἐμβρύου. περὶ γυναικείων ??. περὶ γυναικείων β. περὶ ἀφόρων. περὶ ἐπικυής1ιος. περὶ ἑπταμήνου. περὶ ὀκταμήνου. περὶ παρθενίων. περὶ γυναικείης φύς1εως. Part of ἐπιδημίων ??, ἐπιδημιῶν ??. ἐπιδημιῶν ??. ἐπις1τολαί. περὶ μανίης λόγος. δόγμα Ἀθηναίων. πρες1βευτικός (mutilated).

C' Paris 446 suppl. Tenth century.

D Paris 2254

E Paris 2255. Fourteenth century.

F Paris 2144

H Paris 2142. Thirteenth century.

I Paris 2140

J Paris 2143. Fourteenth century.

K Paris 2145

S' Paris 2276

R' Paris 2165. Sixteenth century.

R Barberinus I. 5. Fifteenth century.

13. CHIEF EDITIONS AND TRANSLATIONS, ETC., OF THE HIPPOCRATIC CORPUS.

1525 Hippocratis Coi medicorum longe principis octoginta volumina, quibus maxima ex parte annorum circiter duo millia latina caruit lingua, Graeci vero, Arabes et prisci nostri medici, plurimis tamen utilibus praetermissis, scripta sua illustrarunt, nunc tandem per M. Fabium Calvum, Rhavennatem, virum undecumque doctissimum, latinitate donata, Clementi VII pont. max. dicata, ac nunc primum in lucem edita, quo nihil humano generi salubrius fieri potuit.

Romae ex aedibus Francisci Minitii Calvi Novocomensis. 1 vol. fol.

1526 "Απαντα τὰ τοῦ Ἱπποκράτους. Omnia opera

[p. lxvi] Hippocratis. Venetiis in aedibus Aldi et Andreae Ansulani soceri. Fol.

1538 Ἱπποκράτους Κὥου ἰατροῦ παλαιοτάτου πάντων ἄλλων κορνφαίου βιβλία ἅπαντα. Hippocratis Coi medici vetustissimi, et omnium aliorum principis, libri omnes ad vetustos codices summo studio collati et restaurati. Froben, Basileae. Fol.

This edition was edited by Janus Cornarius.

1545 Hippocratis Coi medicorum omnium facile principis opera quae extant omnia. Iano Cornario medico physico interprete. Venet. Oct. Apud I. Gryphium.

1588 Hippocratis Coi opera quae extant, graece et latine veterum codicum collatione restituta, novo ordine in quatuor classes digesta, interpretationis latinae emendatione et scholiis illustrata ab Hieron. Mercuriali Foroliviensi. Venetiis industria ac sumptibus Juntarum. Fol.

1588 Oeconomia Hippocratis alphabeti serie distincta, Anutio Foesio authore. Francofurti. Fol.

1595 Τοῦ μεγάλου Ἱπποκράτονς πάντων τῶν ἰατρῶν κορυφαίου τὰ εὑρις1κόμενα.

Magni Hippocratis medicorum omnium facile principis opera omnia quae extant in VIII sectiones ex Erotiani mente distributa, nunc recens latina interpretatione et annotationibus illustrata, Anutio Foesio Mediomatrico medico authore. Francofurti apud Andreae Wecheli haeredes. Fol.

Reprinted 1621, 1624, 1645 and at Geneva 1657.

1665 Magni Hippocratis Coi opera omnia graece et latine edita et ad omnes alias editiones accommodata industria et diligentia Joan. Antonidae van der Linden. Lugduno-Batav. 1665. 2 vol. octavo.

1679 Hippocratis Coi et Claudii Galeni Pergameni

[p. lxvii] ἀρχιατρῶν opera. Renatus Charterius Vindocinensis, plurima interpretatus, universa emendavit, instauravit, notavit, auxit . . . Lutetiae Parisiorum, apud Jacobum Villery. 13 vol. fol.

1743 Τὰ Ἱπποκράτους1 ἅπαντα . . . studio et opera Stephani Mackii. Viennae. 2 vol. fol.

1825 Τοῦ μεγάλου Ἱπποκράτους ἅπαντα. Magni Hippocratis opera omnia. Editionem curavit D. Carolus Gottlob Kéhn. Lipsiae. 3 vol. octavo.

1834 Scholia in Hippocratem et Galenum, F. R. Dietz. 2 vols.

1839-1861 Œuvres complétes d'Hippocrate, traduction nouvelle, avec le texte grec en regard . . . Par. é. Littré. Paris. 10 vol.

1846 Article "Hippocrates" in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, by Dr. W. A. Greenhill.

1849 The genuine works of Hippocrates translated from the Greek with a preliminary Discourse and Annotations by Francis Adams. London. 2 vol.

1859-1864 Hippocratis et aliorum medicorum veterum reliquiae. Edidit Franciscus Zacharias Ermerins. Trajecti ad Rhenum. 3 vol.

1864-1866 Ἱπποκράτης κομιδῇ Car. H. Th. Reinhold. Ἀθήνἡς1ι. 2 vol.

1877, 1878 Chirurgie d'Hippocrate, par J. E. Pétrequin. 2 vols.

1894 Hippocratis opera quae geruntur omnia. Recensuit Hugo Kéhlewein. Prolegomena conscripserunt Ioannes Ilberg et Hugo Kéhlewein.

The second volume appeared in 1902.

1913 Article "Hippokrates (16)" in Pauly-Wissowa Real-Encyclopédie der classischen Altertumsrvissenschaft.

[p. lxviii] The early editions are learned but uncritical, being stronger on the medical side than in scholarship. Special mention should be made of the Oeconomia of Foes, a perfect mine of medical lore, and it is supplemented by the excellent notes in Foes' edition. Such a work could have appeared only in an age when Hippocrates was a real force in medical practice.1

The first scholarly edition was that of Littré, and only those who have seriously studied the works of Hippocrates can appreciate the debt we owe to his diligence, or understand why the task occupied twenty-two years. Unfortunately Littré is diffuse, and not always accurate. His opinions, too, changed during the long period of preparation, and the additional notes in the later volumes must be consulted in order to correct the views expressed in the earlier.

As a textual critic he shows much common sense, but his notes are awkward to read, and his knowledge was practically confined to the Paris MSS.

He is at his best as a medical commentator, and he was the first to explain Hippocratic pathology by proving that the endemic diseases of the Hippocratic writings must be identified, not with the fevers of our climate, but with the remittent forms of malaria common in hot climates. It is not too much to say that without keeping this fact in view we cannot understand a great part of the Corpus. It is curious to note that Hippocrates was a medical text-book almost down to the time (about 1840)

[p. lxix] when malaria ceased to be a real danger to northern Europe.

The most useful critical edition of Hippocrates is that of Ermerins. He was a scholar with a lucid and precise mind, and his critical notes are a pleasure to read. The introductions, too, are stimulating, instructive and interesting, written in a style full of life and charm. As a philologist he was very deficient.

The edition in the Teubner series, edited by Kéhlewein, of which two volumes have appeared, marks a distinct advance. Fresh manuscripts have been collated, and the text has been purged of the pseudo-ionisms which have so long disfigured it.

A word should perhaps be said about Reinhold, whose two volumes of text give us more plausible conjectures than the work of any other scholar.

Of the scholars who have worked at parts of the Corpus mention should be made of Gomperz and Wilamowitz, but especial praise is due to the remarkable acuteness of Coray, whose intellect was like a sword. He always instructs and inspires, even when the reader cannot accept his emendations.

Adams' well-known translation is the work of a man of sense, who loved his author and was not without some of the qualifications of a scholar. The translation is literal and generally good, but is occasionally misleading. The medical annotation is far superior to the scholarship displayed in the work.

1 This is in a way a defect. Foes, like Galen, is not sufficiently "detached" from Hippocratic teaching to judge Hippocrates impartially.

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