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INFLAMMATION in the kidneys is of an acute nature; for the veins passing from the liver to the kidneys are inflamed at the same time, and with these the liver; for these veins are not very long, but are very broad, so as to give the kidneys the appearance of being suspended near the liver. But suppression of urine takes place along with the inflammation, thereby contributing to the intensity of the inflammation; for the cavity of the kidneys is filled by the overflow of the urine which fails to escape. The same happens also with stones, provided one larger than the breadth of the ureters be formed in the kidneys: it then becomes seated there, and, not passing through, it occasions a stoppage of the urine. But we will treat of the formation of calculi among the chronic diseases; how they may either be prevented from forming, or how they may be broken when formed. With regard to heat and obstruction, such of these affections as prove quickly fatal will be described by me in this place.

Whether it be impaction of stones, or whether it be inflammation, we must open the vein at the elbow, unless a particular period of life prove an obstacle, and blood must be taken in a full stream and in large quantity. For not only are inflammations alleviated by evacuation, but also impacted stones are slackened by the evacuation of the vessels, and thus the stones escape during the passing of the urine. Then the parts are to be relaxed by bathing them with oil of must or of privet, and by fomentations and cataplasms. The herb southernwood, the schœnus, and calamus aromaticus, should form the ingredients of the cataplasms. Then we are to apply the cupping-instrument over the kidneys, in the loins, more

especially if the evacuation from this place has been of service. The bowels are to be softened by lubricating clysters, rather of a viscid than of an acrid nature, such as the juiees either of mallows or of fenugreek. Sometimes, also, diuretic medicines are to be given before food, such as are described respecting the liver, and also similar food of easy digestion: for in such cases indigestion is bad. Milk is a most excellent article, especially that of an ass; next, of a mare; even that of an ewe or a goat is useful, as being a kind of milk. If, then, they be free of fever, it is better also to prescribe the bath; but if not, they are to be placed in a sitz-bath formed of the decoction of herbs, filling the vessel up to their navel. But if it be turned to suppuration, what cataplasms and other medicines we are to use have formerly been laid down by us on many occasions.

But, if the stone stick, we are to use the same fomentations and cataplasms, and try to break the stones with medicines taken in the form of drink. The simples are the herbs waterparsnip and prionitis,1 boiled with oil or edible vinegar, and the juice of it taken for drink: the compound ones are, that named from Vestinus, that from vipers and the reptile the skink, and such as from experience appear to be best. Gestation and succussion are calculated to promote the movement and protrusion of the calculi; for the passage of calculi into the bladder is very painful. But if the stones drop out, the patients become free from pain, which they have not been accustomed to be, not even in their dreams; and, as if escaped from inevitable evils, they feel relieved both in mind and in body.

1 I am at a loss to decide what herb this was. It is not noticed either by Theophrastus or Dioscorides. Indeed, I am not aware that it occurs elsewhere, except in the work of Trallian, viii.4. Petit, I know not on what authority, suggests that it is the asplenium ceterach. Liddel and Scott identify it with the κέστρον, but do not give their grounds for holding this opinion.

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