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[157] Aeneadae. Lucr. (1. 1) calls the Roman nation ‘Aeneadae.’ So “Thesidae,” G. 2. 383, of the Athenians. ‘Quae proxuma litora:’ comp. v. 72, “quae forma pulcherrima.” So E. 1. 53, “quae semper.” The relative supplies the want of an article. ‘Cursu’ = “rapide,” as in 2. 321, &c.

[158] Vertuntur ad oras: comp. v. 528. The more usual expression would be “advertuntur oris.” ‘Vertuntur’ seems to be middle in sense, though Weidner takes it “casu vertuntur.

[159] Serv. seems right in treating this as an imaginary description. All the parts of it except the island are taken from or suggested by the harbour of Phorcys, in Od. 13. 96 (comp. also Ulysses' description of the coast on which he is thrown, Od. 5. 411 foll., also Od. 10. 89 foll.). Some have traced the island to the harbour of New Carthage, or the bay of Naples; but, as Heyne says, it is common to many harbours. See his Excursus. ‘In secessu longo,’ ‘in a deep retiring bay.’ Henry says it cannot = “recessus;” but the dictionaries show (what he seems to question) that it may mean a place of retirement; and the notions of a place where men withdraw, and a place which withdraws itself, easily pass into each other. The words recur 3. 229.

[160] Obiectu laterum = “obiectis lateribus,” ‘by the shelter of its sides.’ Caesar has almost the same words (B. C. 3. 112), “Haec insula obiecta Alexandriae portum efficit.

[161] Inque sinus, &c. ‘Parts into the deep hollows of the shore.’ Comp. G. 4. 420 (note), “quo plurima vento Cogitur inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos;” in which passage there is no island or breakwater, though the place is said to be “statio tutissima nautis.” Heyne, who there interprets the words as I have done, here, not very consistently, explains them of the curves of the retiring wave: and so Wagn., Forb., Gossrau. Henry, who formerly took ‘reductos’ to signify “the effect of the island to keep back that part of the wave which is opposite to it, and thus forms a ‘sinus,’” now makes ‘sinus’ the water filling the bay, understanding ‘omnis unda’ of “the whole undulant or sea.” This may be so far true that Virg. may have been more easily induced to talk of the wave as parting into the hollows from the applicability of ‘sinus’ to the contents of the bay, as well as to the bay itself.

[162] It seems best to take ‘vastae rupes’ as the line of cliffs, and ‘scopuli’ as the peaks at its extremities. ‘Gemini’ implies likeness; comp. 3. 535, “gemino demittunt bracchia muro Turriti scopuli.” Silius (4. 2) seems to have taken ‘minantur in caelum’ as “minantur caelo,” threaten the sky, not threaten those below,—the difference between ‘towering’ and ‘beetling.’ Other passages in Virg. (2. 242, 628., 8. 668) would rather support ‘beetling:’ in this case the words would be equivalent to “surgunt minanter in caelum.” Such too would be the analogy of ‘mineo,’ which occurs in Lucr. 6.562:Ad caelumque magis quanto sunt edita quaeque, Inclinata minent in eandem prodita partem,” where however Lachm. reads “meant,” Munro, “tument.” That the two words are radically the same, cannot be doubted, whether the moral or the physical was the primary sense of ‘minor.’ Wagn. comp. Od. 12. 73, οἱ δὲ δύω σκόπελοι, μὲν οὐρανὸν εὐρὺν ἱκάνει Ὀξείῃ κορυφῇ.

[163] Late: there is an expanse of sleeping water below.

[164] Tuta seems to include the two notions, protected from the wind, and safe for ships. The latter seems to come from the context: the former is established by Od. 13. 99, αἵ τ᾽ ἀνέμων σκεπόωσι δυσαήων μέγα κῦμα. Forb. comp. Ov. M. 4. 525,Imminet aequoribus scopulus: pars ima cavatur Fluctibus et tectas defendit ab imbribus undas;” Henry, Claud. Bell. Gild. 523, “Efficitur portus medium mare, tutaque ventis Omnibus ingenti mansuescunt stagna recessu.” ‘Scaena’ was the wall which closed the stage behind (Dict. Ant. ‘theatrum’); here it is that which closes the view. ‘A background of waving woods.’ It is difficult to say whether Virg. had in his thoughts the primitive ‘scaena,’ which Ovid (A. A. 1. 106) describes as formed of boughs (σκηνή, ἀπὸ τῆς σκιᾶς, Serv.), or whether he is thinking merely of the form of an ordinary theatre.

[165] Horrenti, ‘shaggy.’

[166] Fronte sub adversa, under the front of the cliffs facing the entrance of the harbour; i. e. at the head of the cove. Henry thinks there may be a reference to the “frontes scaenae” (G. 3. 24). ‘Saxis pendentibus,’ from Lucr. 6.195,Speluncasque velut saxis pendentibu' structas,” who in turn has imitated an old poet (supposed to be Ennius) in Cic. Tusc. Disp. 1. 16. 37, “Per speluncas saxis structas asperis, pendcntibus.

[167] Dulcis of fresh water, G. 2. 243. ‘Vivo saxo,’ 3. 688, not hewn, but natural, and as it were growing. Comp. G. 2. 469, note. These details are extracted from the much more fanciful description in Hom. above referred to, Od. 13. 103 foll. Comp. also Od. 12. 318, from which Virg. took the seats.

[168] Nympharum domus may be either in vague apposition to the two preceding lines, or in strict apposition to ‘antrum,’ v. 168 being a sort of parenthesis, like that in v. 12, above. ‘Fessas:’ comp. Shaksp., Rom. and Jul. Act 5. Sc. 4, “Thou desperate pilot, now at once run on The dashing rocks thy sea-sick, weary bark.” The weary ship reposes without the strain which the strong cable and biting anchor imply. Od. 13. 100., 9. 136.

[169] Unco morsu, prob. with ‘alligat,’ as “dente tenaci” in the parallel 6. 3 with “fundabat.” Anchors are post-Homeric. Homer's ships are moored with εὐναί, large stones.

[170] Septem, three from the reef, three from the sandbank, and his own. ‘Collectis’ (mustered) may be either an abl. abs. or an instrumental abl. Comp. v. 381, “Bis denis Phrygium conscendi navibus aequor.

[171] Amore for “desiderio,” as ἔρως for πόθος. Heyne and Wagn. needlessly and arbitrarily punctuate ‘ac, magno telluris amore Egressi, optata.

[172] Virg. thought of Ulysses' landing, Od. 5. 462, δ᾽ ἐκ ποταμοῖο λιασθεὶς Σχοίνῳ ὑπεκλίνθη, κύσε δὲ ζείδωρον ἄρουραν. ‘Potiuntur,’ 3. 278., 11. 493.

[173] Tabes is properly the moisture of decomposition, as in Livy 21. 36, “Per nudam glaciem fluentemque tabem liquescentis nivis ingrediebantur.” Here ‘tabentis’ is simply dripping, perhaps with a notion of foulness. Od. 5. 455, θάλασσα δὲ κήκιε πολλὴ Ἂν στόμα τε ῥῖνάς τε. ‘Ponunt,’ ‘stretch.’

[174] Comp. G. 1. 135, A. 6. 6. ‘Silicis’ is read by some MSS. of Virg. and of Serv., and by those of Priscian; but the beginning of the next word accounts for the corruption.

[175] The form ‘succepit’ is found in Med. and Rom., and supported by Serv. here and in 6. 249, note. The verb, however written, harmonizes with ‘nutrimenta,’ bringing out the image of infancy.

[176] Serv. explains ‘rapuit,’ “raptim fecit;” Heyne, “raptim excepit.” Wagn. thinks the word has reference to a practice of waving the tinder to fan the flame. The question seems to be whether the motion expressed in ‘rapuit’ belongs to the act of Achates, or to the flame: either view would be defensible. Serv. explains ‘fomites’ to mean “assulae,” ‘chips,’ quoting two obscure and indeed corrupt passages from the Commentaries of Clodius: and so Festus, p. 64. Pliny, apparently with reference to this passage, says (16. 11), “teritur lignum ligno ignemque concipit attritu excipiente materia aridi fomitis fungi vel foliorum facillimo conceptu.” The process would be clear if we might take the ‘arida nutrimenta’ to be the ‘folia,’ the tinder in which the spark is first caught and kept alive, and from which the chip or match (‘fomes’) is then lighted. Comp. the imitation in Val. Fl. 2. 449, “citum strictis alius de cautibus ignem Ostendit foliis et sulfure pascit amico;” where “sulfur” (perhaps the match) seems to perform the part of the ‘fomes’ here. Weidner inclines to identify ‘folia’ and ‘fomes,’ which is not impossible.

[177] Cerealia arma, the hand-mill, or quern (Dict. A. ‘mola’), and perhaps the kneading-trough, μάκτρα. ‘Correptam’ Rom. originally.

[178] Expediunt, v. 702. ‘Fessi rerum,’ weary of the struggle with fortune. Comp. 12. 589 (of bees attacked in their homes), “trepidae rerum.” Both expressions are apparently copied by Sil. 2. 234, “trepidi rerum fessique salutis,” where it would seem more natural to read, “fessi rerum trepidique salutis.” Comp. also v. 462, “lacrimae rerum,” “fessis rebus,” 3. 145., 11. 335. ‘Receptas,’ saved from the sea.

[179] Comp. G. 1. 267, note.

[180-207] ‘Aeneas, looking for the missing ships, falls in with a herd of stags, and kills seven of them, which he distributes among his crews, encouraging them with the thought that they have escaped worse hardships, and that Italy will be theirs at last.’

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