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[305] There is a slight inaccuracy in ‘volvens,’ as if the thoughts of the night continued into the day; the present participle being perhaps suggested by πολλὰ φρεσὶν ὁρμαίνοντα, Il. 10. 4. Wagn., who will not allow that ‘volvens’ can be equivalent to “qui volverat,” followed by Forb., supposes the sense to be that Aeneas resolved during the night to go out at daybreak; but this would only introduce worse confusion, as ‘ut primum lux alma data est’ cannot mean, ‘as soon as the day should dawn:’ not to mention the abruptness of the transition from, ‘constituit,’ thus explained, to ‘occulit.

[307] Explorare has an object clause over and above the accusative in 7. 150, so that it may be constructed here with ‘quasoras,’ ‘quaerere’ being added as a piece of surplusage for the sake of clearness, like “memoret” after “fari” 2. 75. ‘Vento,’ by stress of weather, as in 4. 46. With the general sense comp. 7. 130 foll., 148 foll.

[308] Inculta seems to have the force of a substantive, like “culta” in the Georgics. ‘For he sees a desert before him.’

[309] Exacta, probably the result of his inquiries; ‘exigere’ being ‘to inquire.’ Ov. A. A. 2. 129,illic quoque pulchra Calypso Exigit Odrysii fata cruenta ducis.” It may however mean no more than τὰ πεπραγμένα, as in “his demum exactis” 6. 637. Weidner makes it mean “accurate,” comparing 9. 193 “mittique viros, qui certa reportent” with Sil. 1. 684, “mittique viros, qui exacta reportent.” Ulysses reconnoitres alone Od. 10. 144 foll.

[310] In convexo nemorum, where the woody shores of the cove (v. 164) narrow. The expression is like “caeli convexa.

[311] Clausam occulit like “submersas obrue” v. 69 above.

[312] Comitatus with the abl. without the preposition is found even in prose. Cic. pro Cael. 14, “mulier alienis viris comitata.

[313] Henry takes ‘manu crispans hastilia’ as equivalent to “crispans manum in hastilia,” and interprets ‘crispans’ as ‘clenching.’ He objects to the ordinary sense ‘brandishing’ (making the spear curl or quiver), on the ground that it is unsupported and inappropriate, when, as here and in 12. 165, where the line recurs, the person is peacefully engaged. While however it may be granted that ‘crispans’ is a strong expression for the motion of the spear merely as carried in the hand in walking, it must be remembered that it is hazardous to assume that one expression is put for another, which itself has no example in the Latin language. Hom.'s heroes carry two spears. “Lato venabula ferro” 4. 131.

[314] se tulit obvia: comp. 6. 879., 10. 552.

[315] Heyne remarks that Virg. had before him Od. 7. 19., 13. 221, where Athene meets and guides Ulysses, in the one place as a girl carrying water, in the other place as a shepherd. Macrobius had already observed (Sat. 5. 11) that Venus to some extent performs the part of Nausicar in Od. 6. ‘Gerere’ of an assumed appearance 12. 472. Wagn. rightly understands the meaning to be “virginis os habitumque gerens, et virginis arma vel Spartanae vel Thressae.” Venus assumes the face and appearance of a virgin and the accoutrements of a huntress.

[317] Harpalyce. There is more than one mythological character of this name; but the one meant here appears to be a Thracian princess who took to the woods upon the dethronement of the king her father. The MSS. have ‘Hebrum.’ Rutgers conjectured ‘Eurum,’ which has been received by several editors, including Heyne and Ribbeck, on the ground that it is no proof of swiftness to outrun a river, and that Hebrus in particular, as Serv. remarks, is not swift. Wagn. and Forb. however rightly defend the MSS. reading, as in perfect conformity with classical usage, and particularly supported by Sil. 2. 73, “Quales Threiciae Rhodopen Pangaeaque lustrant Saxosis nemora alta jugis cursuque fatigant Hebrum innupta manus.” The Thracian huntress outstrips the rivers of her own country. A similar attempt has been made to correct the text of Hor. Od. 1. 25. 20, where see Macleane's note. Heyne, Wagn., and Forb. take ‘equos fatigat’ as ‘presses her horses,’ “quod proprium Amazonibus.” But Serv.'s explanation, ‘tires by outrunning them,’ is supported by the imitation from Silius just quoted (comp. also Sil. 3. 307), and corresponds with the story of Harpalyce, very circumstantially given by Serv. In Soph. Ant. 981 foll. (a passage which corresponds remarkably with this story of Harpalyce), we have the expression Βορεὰς ἅμιππος. Comp. Jeremiah 12. 5, “If thou hast run with the footmen, and they have wearied thee, then how canst thou contend with horses?” Both ‘praevertor’ and ‘praeverto’ are used in this sense: comp. 7. 807., 12. 345. ‘Fuga’ of rapid movement in general, G. 3. 142, 201.

[318] Humeris suspenderat arcum: τόξ᾽ ὤμοισιν ἔχων, Il. 1. 45. The bow, and sometimes the arrows, appears to have been placed in the bow-case, or γωρυτός (10. 169, “Gorytique leves humeris”), and so slung over the shoulder. See Dict. A. ‘arcus.’ ‘Habilem’ is perhaps best taken closely with ‘suspenderat,’ the bow being slung conveniently. Comp. 9. 305, “habilem vagina aptarat eburna.” ‘De more’ is explained by v. 315 above, v. 336 below.

[319] Venatrix, ‘as a huntress:’ comp. 11. 648 note, and perhaps ib. 780; also below v. 493. ‘Dederat comam diffundere ventis,’ a Grecism; comp. Hor. 1 Od. 26. 2, “Tradam protervis in mare Creticum Portare ventis.” It is difficult to obtain an exact grammatical analysis of the expression, which may be explained either by making ‘comam diffundere’ jointly the object of ‘dederat’ (‘gave the dishevelling of her hair to the winds’), or by making ‘comam’ the object and ‘diffundere’ an epexegetical acc. (‘her hair, namely, its dishevelling’); or, lastly, by making ‘comam’ the object and ‘diffundere’ a cognate acc. expressing the effect of the gift.

[320] Nuda genu, i. e. her tunic did not reach the knee. Ov., M. 10. 536, “Nuda genu, vestem ritu succincta Dianae” (quoted by Forb.). A representation of Diana with her tunic girt up above the knee, and the folds gathered into a knot or bunch on the breast, is given in Dict. A. ‘chlamys.’ It is difficult however, on a comparison of parallel passages (4. 139., 11. 776; Stat. Theb. 4. 265; Claud. Cos. Prob. et Olyb. 1. 89), to determine whether the ‘sinus’ is the folds of the tunic or the chlamys, and whether the ‘nodus’ is the knot or bunch into which the folds were gathered, the brooch, or the belt. The usage of Virg. seems in favour of taking ‘nodus’ strictly of a knot. Comp. 6. 301. Heyne's note on this passage is perhaps scarcely consistent with his third Excursus on Aen. 11.

[321] ‘If you have by any chance seen one of my sisters, point out to me where she is;’ not ‘tell me whether you have seen,’ a sense which ‘monstrate’ will not bear.

[323] Maculosae tegmine lyncis: this would be worn as a chlamys or scarf. See Dict. A. ‘chlamys.’ ‘Pharetram,’ which is found in some inferior MSS. and (from a correction) in Rom., would seem to have been an old reading, as Priscian, p. 1081, says “pharetram . . . . sed melius in quibusdam codicibus sine m pharetra ablativus invenitur: quidam tamen lyncis cursum a communi accipiunt,” a strange interpretation. Madvig however would take ‘cursum’ with ‘lyncis’ as well as with ‘apri:’ and Ribbeck, Prolegom. p. 328, admitting the justice of the objection to this, that “tegmen” is the hide of a dead beast, not the skin of a living one, would adopt ‘tegmina’ from Gud. (originally), supposing that ‘tegmina lyncis prementem’ could mean ‘hunting the lynx for its hide.’

[324] Apri cursum prementem is opposed to ‘errantem.’ ‘Clamore prementem;’ see G. 3. 419, where the dogs, to which ‘clamore’ refers, are the principal subject of the paragraph. ‘Apri cursum’ = “aprum currentem,” a boar that has broken covert. See Hor. Epod. 5. 28, and Macleane's note.

[325-334] ‘Aeneas replies, supposing her to be a goddess, and inquires the name of the country.’

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