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[464] Inani is not a mere general epithet, but has a pathetic sense in connexion with ‘pascit,’ implying that the subjects are numbered with the lost and past.

[465] The weeping is doubtless from the tears of Ulysses during the song of Demodocus Od. 8. 521 foll.

[466] Comp. E. 6. 31, “Namque canebat, uti” &c. Weidner arranges the various pictures into two groups of four scenes each: but the notion, though ingenious, seems fanciful.

[468] Curru ablative, not dative. The crest of Achilles is described Il. 19. 380, and again 22. 314 foll., just as he is going to give Hector his death-wound, so that we are doubtless intended to be reminded of its terrors.

[469] For the story of Rhesus see Il. 10, and the play of that name ascribed to Euripides. ‘Niveis tentoria velis’ is an anachronism. The Homeric κλίσιαι, as appears from Il. 24. 448, were huts of planks thatched with grass.

[470] Primo somno is proved by a number of instances (2. 268., 5. 857) to mean ‘in their first and deepest sleep;’ not, as Wagn. thinks, the first time they slept at Troy. ‘Prodita,’ betrayed to him, and so surprised. Possibly Henry may be right in making ‘somno’ instrumental, ‘betrayed by sleep.’

[471] Vastabat tentoria, was spreading havoc through them. Perhaps it is more forcible to take ‘multa caede’ with ‘vastabat:’ ‘with wide carnage;’ not with ‘cruentus,’ ‘covered with much blood.’ But the point is very doubtful.

[472] Ardentis is the Homeric αἴθωνας. ‘Ardentis equos’ 7. 781. One MS. has ‘albentis,’ which was the colour of the horses of Rhesus, Il. 10. 437. But the mention of the colour as exactly represented here might be thought rather jejune, especially after ‘niveis velis.’ ‘Avertit,’ as “avertere praedas” 10. 78.

[473] Gustassentbibissent. The subj. denotes the intention of Diomede. Homer and the Pseudo-Euripides know nothing of this intention, which Eustathius on Il. 10. 435, and the Scholiast, followed by Serv. on this passage, say was to prevent the accomplishment of an oracle that if the horses of Rhesus tasted the grass or water of Troy, Troy should not be taken.

[474] Troilus is mentioned by Priam, Il. 24. 257, with the epithet of ἱππιοχάρμης, as having been killed in battle (before the time of the Iliad). The tradition that he was killed by Achilles must have been drawn by Virg. from other sources, such as those represented by Quintus Smyrnaeus, Tzetzes, Dictys, and Dares, who however differ about the period in the Trojan war when his death occurred. Heyne conjectures from a Schol. on Hom. l. c. that Soph. in his lost tragedy of Troilus represented the youth as surprised by Achilles while exercising his chariot, and killed. See his Excursus on this passage. Plautus, Bacchid. 4. 9. 29 foll., speaks of the death of Troilus as one of the three fatal events in the siege of Troy, the other two being the loss of the Palladium and the fall of the top of the Scaean gate. Ribbeck transposes this passage so as to make it follow the next scene; but this would be to bind Virg. to follow servilely the Homeric order, with which indeed there would still be a disagreement, as in Hom. the mission to the temple of Athene precedes the Dolonea. The intention of Virg. doubtless is to mention first two fatal blows to Troy, and then the despairing effort of the Trojan women to propitiate the angry goddess.

[475] Atque couples ‘inpar congressus’ with ‘infelix.

[476] Fertur equis, is run away with. G. 1. 513, “frustra retinacula tendens Fertur equis auriga neque audit currus habenas.” He has fallen backwards from the car (which of course had no back), but hangs by the reins, which were passed round the body, and which he still grasps with his hand. ‘Hasta’ is the spear of Troilus. Virg., as Heyne remarks, has departed from the Homeric custom, in which two warriors ride in the same car, one to drive and the other to fight.

[477] Heyne justly wonders that Quinct. (7. 9) should raise a question whether ‘tamen’ goes with what precedes or with what follows.

[478] Pulvis inscribitur like “flores inscriptiE. 3. 106.

[479] Non aequae, unpropitious. Comp. G. 2. 225, “vacuis Clanius non aequus Acerris.” This scene is described in Il. 6. 297 foll., which is imitated by Virg. himself 11. 477 foll.

[481] Suppliciter, as Henry says, gives the general effect, and so should be pointed off. The ‘suppliant guise’ is further described in the words that follow.

[482] Hom. Il. 6. 311 has Ὣς ἔφατ᾽ εὐχομένη, ἀνένευε δὲ ΙΙαλλὰς Ἀθήνη. The contrary attitude is described in Ovid, Trist. 1. 3. 45, “Ad vatem voltus rettulit illa (Venus) suos.” Here there is of course a confusion between the goddess and her statue.

[483] This line suggests the mangled and pitiable state of the body as shown in the picture,—a condition such as is described 2. 272. The tense of ‘raptaverat’ shows that this is not a separate picture. Comp. 8. 642—4, where the tense of “distulerant” similarly shows that the tearing of the limbs asunder had taken place before the action represented on the shield, which is similarly marked by the imperfect. In Hom. Hector is chased round the walls and dragged round the tomb of Patroclus. Heyne supposes Virg. to have followed the Cyclic poets or one of the tragedians, as Eur. Androm. 105 has τὸν περὶ τείχη Εἵλκυσε διφρεύων παῖς ἁλίας Θέτιδος. The word ‘raptaverat’ is apparently from Ennius, Androm. fr. 12, “Hectorem curru quadriiugo raptarier.” The scene is from Il. 24. 478 foll.

[484] Exanimum perhaps = “ita exanimatum,” by the dragging: see on 2. 273. ‘Auro vendebat,’ 6. 621. See Madv. § 258.

[486] Currus has been differently taken as the chariot of Hector or that of Achilles. It might also be taken of that of Priam, described Il. 24. 266. The chariot of Achilles however would be a more important object in such a picture; and its presence seems to be indicated in v. 483. Statius has a parallel passage (Silv. 2. 7. 55) “Ludes Hectora Thessalosque currus Et supplex Priami potentis aurum.

[487] Inermis, unarmed, and so suppliant. The expression ‘tendere manus inermis’ occurs (with a variation of reading) 10. 595., 11. 414, 672. For the thing see Il. 24. 478.

[488] It is perhaps a little remarkable that Aeneas' features should have been transmitted by fame to Carthage, so as to be at once recognized by himself. In the other cases we may suppose that the event described told its own story. But names are found written over or under figures in old sculpture or painting, and Virg. may have had this practice in his mind, so that he would not seem to himself to be making a violent assumption. ‘Principibus permixtum,προμάχοις μιχθέντα. When Poseidon rescues Aeneas from Achilles, he tells him to keep in the background during Achilles' lifetime, but afterwards μετὰ πρώτοισι μάχεσθαι Il. 20. 338. Whether this time of more extended action is referred to here we cannot say, as we do not know how far the order of the pictures is chronological. Fragm. Vat. and Rom. give ‘adgnoscit,’ which Jahn adopts. This and the next line do not seem to represent any particular scene, though Weidner (see on v. 466) thinks otherwise. Were it so, we should probably have had a more definite description, as Aeneas himself figures in the action. The lines appear rather to be a summing up of various scenes not described in detail.

[489] The ‘Eoae acies’ are the Indian Aethiopians. Hom. says nothing of them in the Iliad, but Memnon is mentioned Od. 4. 187., 11. 521. Memnon had arms made by Vulcan, A. 8. 384. He was probably the hero of the Aethiopis of Arctinus, which is said to have followed immediately on the action of the Iliad (Mure, Hist. vol. ii. p. 282). He is called ‘niger’ as an Aethiopian, but the legend made him eminently beautiful, Od. 11. 521. On the whole subject see Heyne's Excursus.

[490] Penthesilea and her Amazons are again post-Homeric personages, who also seem to have figured in the Aethiopis, another title of the poem being probably Amazonia. Priam speaks of himself as having fought against Amazons invading Phrygia, Il. 3. 188. For ‘lunatis peltis,’ which were part of the national armour of various parts of Asia, and therefore attributed to the Amazons, see Dict. A. ‘pelta.’

[492] Subnectens for “subnexa habens.” ‘Exsertae’ as in 11. 649 note (of Camilla), “Unum exserta latus pugnae.” See Dict. Myth. ‘Amazons.’ With the construction comp. G. 3. 166, “circlos Cervici subnecte.

[493] Bellatrix placed as in 7. 805: comp. v. 319 above. ‘Viris concurrere virgo’ is supposed to be a reminiscence of the epithet ἀντιανείρας, applied by Hom. l. c. to the Amazons.

[494-519] ‘As he is gazing, Dido enters the temple, where she holds a court. To his surprise, his missing comrades appear and address her.’

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