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[494] Videntur apparently means ‘are seen’ rather than ‘seem’ (comp. “mihi visa” v. 326 above): ‘miranda’ however does not seem to be a pres. part. like “volvenda,” as Wagn. thinks, but rather means ‘are seen as marvels.’ Henry notes the propriety of ‘Dardanio,’ as Aeneas is overwhelmed by Dardan recollections.

[495] Comp. 7. 249, “defixa Latinus Obtutu tenet ora soloque inmobilis haeret,” which seems to show that ‘haeret’ is to be separated from ‘obtutu in uno’ here.

[497] Incessit conveys a notion of majesty, as “incedo” in v. 46. Weidner supposes ‘iuvenum’ to be young women, which would help out the simile, but seems otherwise quite improbable. Elsewhere we hear of no female companions of hers except her sister. “Saepta armis” below he understands of a male bodyguard following her and her train. For ‘stipante’ Rom. has ‘comitante.

[498] This simile is translated with minor variations from Od. 6. 102 foll. It is much less appropriate to Dido walking in the midst of her lords, than to Nausicaa dancing among her handmaidens, as was remarked long ago by Probus ap. Gell. 9. 9. ‘Per iuga Cynthi’ 4. 147. Hom. specifies Taygetus (in Laconia, like Eurotas) or Erymanthus. For Eurotas comp. E. 6. 83.

[499] Exercet choros like “exercent palaestras” 3. 281. The first syllable of ‘Diana’ is elsewhere short in Virg. Possibly he may have preferred the long antepenult in the nom., the short in the oblique cases.

[500] “Quem circum glomerati hostes hinc comminus atque hinc Proturbant,” 9. 440. The nymphs follow her, and as they throng, form a circle round her. ‘Illa pharetram fert humero’ is perhaps a translation of ἰοχέαιρα. Comp. note on v. 416. We may however be intended to think of the motion of the quiver on the shoulder, as in 4. 149, “Tela sonant humeris.

[501] For ‘deas’ Pal. and Rom. have ‘dea,’ which also may have been the first reading of Med. Henry prefers it, citing vv. 412, 692. But the lengthening of a final vowel is very unusual, though not unexampled (see on 3. 464), and the omission of the letter is easily accounted for (see on G. 2. 219). It may be said too that ‘deas’ is confirmed by Hom. l. c. ῥεῖά τ᾽ ἀριγνώτη πέλεται, καλαὶ δέ τε πᾶσαι, though ‘dea’ would have a force of its own. ‘Deae’ of inferior goddesses 9. 117., 10. 235.

[502] A characteristically elaborated version of the Homeric γέγηθε δέ τε φρένα Λητώ. Virg. may have thought too of Il. 18. 556.

[503] Se ferebat, ‘advanced,’ 5. 290 &c. Even where there is no word of motion in the sentence, as in 5. 372., 8. 199, it seems to indicate more than our word ‘carriage’ or ‘bearing,’ though that notion may be included, as here.

[504] ‘Urging on the work which was to set up her kingdom.’ “Non ignarus instandum famae,” Tac. Agr. 18.

[505] The simplest way of reconciling ‘foribus’ and ‘media’ is to suppose that Dido sat in the centre of the entrance; the ‘testudo’ (vaulted roof) extending over the whole building. The idea is probably taken from meetings of the senate held in temples. But Henry (anticipated by Turneb. Adv. 10. 11) may be right in taking ‘foribus divae’ of the ‘cella’ within the temple, and supposing that Dido was seated on the landing-place of the flight of steps by which the ‘cella’ was commonly approached. He also remarks the general similarity between the reception of the Trojans here by Dido in the temple of Juno and by Latinus in the temple of Faunus 7. 170 foll. My lamented friend, Professor Shirley, suggested to me that the temple may have been a hypaethral one, which would have the ‘testudo’ over the door. Ribbeck reads ‘media e testudine,’ from a doubtful variety in Pal.

[506] Subnixa means supported from beneath, with the throne (‘solio’), not, as Heyne thinks, with a footstool. Henry comp. Claud. Epith. Hon. et Mar. 99, where ‘solio subnixa’ is similarly used. ‘Saepta armis,’ “satellitum scilicet,” Serv.

[507] Iura legesque is the common expression of the whole Roman law, and the words are not to be pressed here. Comp. Hor. 1 Sat. 1. 9, “iuris legumque peritus,” with Macleane's note, and Dict. A. ‘ius.’ For ‘iura dare’ see on v. 293 above, 5. 758. ‘Operumque laborem’ foll. may be taken in two ways; either, that she divided by equity and, where that failed, by lot, which is the common way, or, that she first divided equally and then distributed the parts by lot. There is some resemblance between the scene here and that described Od. 11. 568 foll., though there the notion of administering justice is the prominent one, here that of giving laws and apportioning work.

[508] Partibus probably instr. or modal abl. ‘Sorte trahebat’ is an inverted expression, combining the common phrase “sortem trahere” with the notion of division. See note on v. 381, and comp. 2. 201., 5. 534 notes.

[509] Concursu magno, either in or through the multitude crowding to the temple, or with a great crowd collecting round them.

[510] ‘Anthea,’ v. 181, ‘Cloanthum,’ v. 222. Sergestus is mentioned for the first time.

[512] Penitus, far away. Comp. “penitus repostas Massylum gentis,” 6. 59. ‘Alias oras,’ other than where Aeneas had landed. ‘Advexerat’ is found in some MSS. including a correction in Med., ‘averterat’ in fragm. Vat. and Gud.

[513] Perculsus Med., Pal. corrected, ‘percussus’ fragm. Vat., Rom., Gud., Pal. originally. The latter has generally been adopted since Heins. The words are frequently confounded in MSS., and it is not easy to establish the distinction for which Forb. and others contend, as though ‘perculsus’ were too strong to be applied to any pleasurable emotion. Here however ‘perculsus’ is used in a sense peculiar to itself as a synonym of ‘obstipuit’ (was struck dumb), the ablatives referring to both words as if it had been ‘prae laetitia metuque.’ The words ‘perculsus’ and ‘stupeo’ are similarly joined in Hor. Epod. 7. 16, “Mentesque perculsae stupent.” Comp. also Tac. A. 1. 12, “Perculsus inprovisa interrogatione paullum reticuit.” ‘Perculsus’ should be restored to 8. 121, “Obstipuit tanto percussus nomine Pallas,” where it is read by Rom. In 9. 197 ‘percussus’ would seem to be the right word, being taken closely with ‘amore,’ as in G. 2. 476, where however, as there, the MSS. present the same variety. These passages seem also to show that ‘perculsus’ here is not an independent verb, but a participle, so that it is best to remove the comma after ‘ipse.’ ‘Simulsimul,’ 5. 675.

[514] Avidi should be taken closely with ‘ardebant,’ as if it were ‘avide.

[515] Res incognita is explained by the questions in vv. 517 foll.

[516] Dissimulant, they repress their emotions. This use of ‘dissimulo’ absolutely is not common. ‘Cava,’ enshrouding. Comp. 2. 360, “nox atra cava circumvolat umbra.” ‘Speculantur,’ look out on what was passing, as from a secure place of observation.

[517] Classem quo litore linquant, not on what shore it will prove that they have left their fleet, as Forb. thinks, but on what shore they are leaving their fleet, the fleet being all the time without them.

[518] Cuncti, Med., Rom., Gud. corrected, Serv., Donatus. ‘Cunctis,’ Pal., Gud. originally. The MSS. however have less positive weight here, as it is evident that there has been a confusion between ‘cunctis’ and ‘lecti,’ some giving ‘cuncti lectis’ (Rom.), others ‘cunctis lectis’ (Gud. originally, Pal. corrected). The sense is strongly against ‘cuncti,’ whether we couple it with what follows, or, as Wagn., with what precedes. The appearance of deputies from all the ships informs Aeneas that the whole fleet is there (‘classem quo litore linquant’); whereas it is difficult to see the meaning of making him wonder why all the deputies came together. Strictly, no doubt, “omnes” means all, distributively, and “cuncti” the whole, as Jahn contends against the reading ‘cunctis:’ but there are repeated instances in which “cuncti” might be replaced by “omnes,” and even by “singuli,” G. 2. 42, A. 3. 398.

[519] Orantes veniam, praying for grace; not, as Wagn. thinks, for permission to speak with the queen, but for the favours specified in v. 525. Comp. 11. 100 foll., “Iamque oratores aderantveniam rogantesRedderetsineretparceret.” See also note on 2. 114. ‘Clamore,’ Forb. says, “non suo sed multitudinis.” Why, it is difficult to see. They would naturally clamour when in danger of having their fleet burnt; and there seems to be a poetical contrast between the calmness of the aged Ilioneus (v. 521) and the excitement of the rest.

[520-560] ‘Ilioneus, as their spokesman, tells his tale, and begs for permission for them to refit their ships, that they may be able to sail either to Italy or Sicily.’

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