Casu tanto, at the stupendous disaster. It would be harsh to separate ‘primo,’ as an adverb, from ‘aspectu’ (see however 4. 176); as an adjective, it may still be taken adverbially, as in 4. 166, E. 6. 1.
 Quis casus, τίς τύχη, “quae fortuna” (comp. above v. 240). ‘Quae vis,’ τίς βία. The meaning seems to be, “How inveterate the ill-fortune that persecutes you! how savage the violence that leads you here!” the question being one of wonder. In v. 9 he is driven through ‘casus:’ here the ‘casus’ drives him.
 Inmanibus, savage, with reference to the Libyans, an apology for the roughness of her own people being blended with an identification of his misfortunes with her own. “Terrae adplicat ipsum,” 12. 303. Here it = “adpellere,” v. 377 above.
[617, 8] Comp. Il. 2. 820. ‘Genuit:’ Virg. may mean only that the meeting of Venus and Anchises was by the banks of the Simois. Serv. however says, “Deae vel Nymphae enituntur circa fluvios vel nemora.”
 Teucer, being refused admission in Salamis by his father on his return from Troy, founded a new Salamis in Cyprus. Virg. supposes him to have sought the assistance of Belus, king of Tyre, whom he represents to have conquered the Cyprians shortly before. See Heyne's Excursus.
 “Dicione tenerent,” above v. 236.
 Casus may mean strictly ‘fall,’ here and 2. 607.
 Pelasgi for the Greeks is postHomeric. In Hom. the Pelasgi are a tribe allied with the Trojans. In the same way the Dardanii are a particular tribe which was commanded by Aeneas.
 Volebat, not ‘wished that he were,’ but ‘gave himself out to be,’ being the son of Hesione, Laomedon's daughter. In this use of the word the notion is generally that of a vain pretension or fancy: but Cic. 1 De Or. 4. § 13, “Gracciam, quae semper eloquentiae princeps esse voluit,” approaches nearly to the meaning here. Virg. evidently meant to express the Homeric εὔχεται εἶναι. ‘Ab’ was restored by Heins. from Med. and others for ‘a,’ which does not seem to be found in any first-class MS.
 Disco seems to be used instead of “didici,” as more modest. The commentators in general do not notice the tense: Serv. however seems to have found some difficulty in it, as he wishes to take ‘non’ twice, “Quare non disco? quia non sum ignara.”
 Indicit honorem, orders sacrifice to be offered, in honour of the preservation of Aeneas. Comp. “supplicatio indicitur,” Caes. B. G. 7. 90. Heyne remarks that this is different from the Homeric custom of sacrificing to the gods the victim of which the guest is to partake. Both however are found in Aesch. Ag. 87 foll., 594 foll., compared with vv. 1056 foll.
[634, 5] Taken, but, as usual, with an exaggeration, significant of unreality, from Od. 8. 59 foll. Comp. 5. 96 note. ‘Magnorum horrentia centum Terga suum,’ for “centum sues tergis horrentibus.” Comp. 4. 511 note. ‘Centum’ may go either with ‘terga’ or with ‘suum;’ but it more probably belongs to the former. See on 5. 404, “tantorum ingentia septem Terga boum.”
 Dei is the reading of almost all the existing MSS., including Rom. and Med., which has the final ‘i’ added in red ink. Gellius, 9. 14, asserts that ‘dii’ for ‘diei’ is the true reading, the other having been introduced by ignorant correctors. ‘Dii’ seems to be the reading of Pal. and at least one other MS., from Ribbeck's silence. It is obvious that Gell.'s is merely a critical opinion, and proves nothing as to the superior antiquity of either reading. All that we know is that both readings existed from an early time, and that while ‘dii’ was supported by several authorities after Gellius, such as Julius Romanus, ‘dei’ was maintained by others, such as Rufius Apronianus and Donatus, whose explanation is “vinum quod sufficeret omnibus.” Serv. mentions both readings, and a third, ‘die’ (see on G. 1. 208), which is found in one copy. Two others appear to have ‘diei.’ ‘Munera laetitiamque dei’ evidently refers to wine, which would naturally form a part of Dido's presents; the expression being resolvable into “munera laetifica dei laetitiae datoris” (comp. v. 734, “Adsit laetitiae Bacchus dator”). Bacchus, as henry remarks, is called simply ‘deus’ 9. 337, “multoque iacebat Membra deo victus,” according to one interpretation of the words. On the other hand, it would be difficult to affix any precise sense to the line if ‘dii’ were read. Heyne's explanation is “pecudes quae pro munere sint, et quarum epulis dies hilariter agatur.” ‘Dii’ has been adopted however by most of the later editors. If any awkwardness is felt from the asyndeton, we may impute it to the imperfect state of the passage.
 Imitated from Catull. 62 (64). 43—51. Comp. especially v. 46, “Tota domus gaudet regali splendida gaza.” The words ‘regali splendida luxu instruitur’ are to be connected closely together, ‘is being set out in the splendour of royal magnificence’ (“instruitur ut splendida sit” Serv.), ‘luxu’ being probably connected with ‘splendida’ like “gaza” in Catull. l. c. ‘At domus interior’ recurs 2. 486, also of the “atrium.” Comp. the banquet in 3. 353 foll. note. Cic. has “instructa et exornata domus” 2 Verr. 2. 34, “omnibus rebus instructum et paratum convivium” ib. 4. 27.
 Arte laboratae is the predicate. ‘The coverlets were embroidered and of princely purple: on the table was spread massy silver plate, and vessels of gold chased with legends.’ ‘Vestes’ for “stragulae vestes,” as in Lucr. 2.36 &c. ‘Ostro superbo,’ abl. of the material.
 Antiqua Rom., Pal., and Gud. originally, ‘antiquae’ Med., Pal., and Gud. corrected. The former, which was restored by Heyne but ejected by Wagn., seems slightly preferable, both on the ground of authority and as avoiding a harsh elision.
[643-656] ‘Aeneas sends Achates for Ascanius, bidding him bring royal ornaments as a present for Dido.’