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[81] Henry rightly explains the meaning to be that Aeolus, going to the cave, pushed the mountain on the side with his spear turned towards it (‘conversa cuspide’), and so opened the “claustra,” which are to be conceived of as folding doors opening inwards. Comp. 7. 620, “Tum regina deum caelo delapsa morantis Inpulit ipsa manu portas,” and the imitation of Val. F. (1. 608), “Cum valido contortam turbine portam Inpulit Hippotades.” The words and rhythm of the line are imitated from Enn. A. inc. 77, “nam me gravis impetus Orci Percutit in latus,” quoted by Serv. ‘Excipit in latus’ occurs 12. 507, and Stat. Theb. 1. 119 has “dubiumque iugo fragor inpulit Oeten In latus.” The ‘cuspis’ is perhaps the same as the sceptre, v. 57; but we need not press these details.

[82] Velut agmine facto, as it were with one accord, the sense of combination lying in the ‘facto.’ Comp. G. 4. 167, and Juv. 3. 162, “agmine facto Debuerant olim tenues migrasse Quirites.

[83] Qua data porta, through the ‘claustra,’ so opened.

[84] For the instantaneous effect expressed by the transition to the perfect here and in v. 90, comp. G. 1. 330. ‘Heavily they are fallen on the sea.’

[85] Od. 5. 295, Σὺν δ᾽ Εὖρός τε Νότος τ᾽ ἔπεσε, Ζεφυρός τε δυσαής, Καὶ Βορέης αἰθρηγενέτης, μέγα κῦμα κυλίνδων. Comp. also Enn. A. 17, fr. 5. Seneca (Nat. Quaest. 16) reproves Virg. for having made three out of the four winds blow at once. Trapp and Heyne try to defend him on the plea that shifting winds are common. But this obviously is not his meaning. All the winds leave the cave at once. Milton's classicism has led him to the same violation of nature, Par. Reg. Book 4: “nor slept the winds Within their stony caves, but rushed abroad From the four hinges of the world, and fell On the vexed wilderness” (quoted by Henry). The effect of the emission of all the winds from the skin in Hom. (Od. 10. 54), is that Ulysses is blown back to the island from which he came. ‘Ruunt’ seems here to be ‘upheave’ (see note on G. 1. 105); but it is possible that the ‘aequor’ may be conceived of as a kind of ceiling, which crashes down on a movement from below.

[87] As in Od. 10. 121 foll., the havoc made on the ships is not expressly mentioned, but more vividly indicated by the cries of distress on board. Serv. quotes a fragment from the Teucer of Pacuvius: “armamentum stridor, flictus navium, Strepitus, fremitus, clamor tonitruum, et rudentum sibilus” (as restored by Hermann: see Ribbeck, Fragm. p. 100).

[88] Od. 5. 293, σὺν δὲ νεφέεσσι κάλυψε Γαῖαν ὁμοῦ καὶ πόντον: ὀρώρει δ᾽ οὐρανόθεν νύξ. Comp. 3. 198, “Involvere diem nimbi et nox humida caelum Abstulit.

[90] Intonuere poli,axes, i. e. extremae partes caeli super quibus caelum vertitur, i. e. πολεῖται, unde vertices Latine, Graece πόλοι dicuntur: duo enim sunt, Notios et Boreos, a quibus totum caelum contonuisse significat,” Serv. ‘It thunders from pole to pole.’ Heyne and others think it would be more forcible to omit ‘et,’ with one or two MSS.; but this would spoil the sense, as of course the lightning really comes before the thunder, whereas, if the two were mentioned separately, it would seem as if the poet actually intended to reverse the natural order.

[91] “Ostentant omnia letum,” Catull. 62. (64.) 187.

[92] Frigore, ‘chilling fear,’ in 12. 951, where these words are repeated, the chill of death. In the same connexion Hom. (Od. 5. 297), καὶ τότ᾽ Ὀδυσσῆος λύτο γούνατα καὶ φίλον ἦτορ.

[93] Schirach renders ‘duplicis,’ ‘clasped.’ But see 7. 140, “Et duplicis caeloque Ereboque parentes.” So Lucr. 6.1146,Et duplicis oculos suffusa luce rubentis.

[94] Referre cannot here have its usual sense of ‘reply;’ nor can it mean to recount, as in “quid referam.” Either then the word must be construed simply ‘says,’ or it must be explained as an elliptical expression for “refert pectore,” which we find 5. 409.—‘O terque quaterque beati,’ &c. The whole of this is closely imitated from part of the speech of Ulysses, Od. 5. 306—312. The horror of Ulysses is excited by the prospect of death without glory and without burial; that of Achilles when in danger of drowning (Il. 21. 272), by the prospect of death without glory. Comp. also for the sentiment Aesch. Cho. 345 foll., 363 foll.

[95] Ante ora patrum probably means dying with the friends, for whom they are fighting, to cheer them on. What is here the consolation of the son, is elsewhere the aggravation of the father's sorrow, as in G. 4. 477, A. 10. 443. ‘Troiae sub moenibus altis,’ 10. 469.

[96] Oppetere is merely a synonym for ‘obire,’ as appears from Phaedr. 3. 16. 2, Sen. Troad. 3. 6. 9; not, as Forb. and Doederlein think, especially appropriated to death voluntarily or bravely encountered. Aeneas is nearly killed by Diomede, from whom he is rescued by Aphrodite, Il. 5. 297 foll. Diomede is characterized as the bravest of the Greeks by Helenus, Il. 6. 98, Achilles being specially not excepted.

[97] From a fragment of Ennius quoted by Serv. on 2. 62, “Morti occumbunt obviam,” it would seem as if “morti occumbere” was the full phrase; so that the preposition may thus be explained. “Morte occumbere” and “mortem occumbere” however also occur. ‘Mene’ with inf. v. 37, note.

[99] Saevus has no special meaning here, but is the Homeric Ἕκτορος ἀνδροφόνοιο.

[100] Virg. appears to have forgotten that in Hom. (Il. 16. 667 foll.) the body of Sarpedon is carried away to Lycia. Wagn. and Forb. however understand ‘iacet’ in the sense of a historic present, and render it ‘was slain.’ Perhaps we may say that Aeneas, who in the line before speaks of the act of dying, is here thinking merely of the moment of death. The expression however is the same in Od. 3. 108 foll., which Heyne comp.: “ἔνθα δ᾽ ἔπειτα κατέκταθεν ὅσσοι ἄριστοι:
ἔνθα μὲν Αἴας κεῖται ἀρήϊος, ἔνθα δ᾽ Ἀχιλλεὺς κ. τ. λ.,

where the meaning seems to be ‘There we left Ajax, Achilles,’ &c. ‘Iacet telo’ = ‘stratus est telo.’ ‘Ubi tot Simois,’ &c.: imitated from Hom. (Il. 12. 22), who however speaks of the spoils and bodies of those who fell on the banks of Simois. “Quos Simois premat ille viros,” 11. 257. A few MSS. read ‘sub undas,’ a variety mentioned by Serv., and supported by the parallel passage 8. 539. Jahn and Forb. suppose the difference of case to be justified by the difference of tense between ‘volvit’ and ‘volves,’ which is the word there. But it is not clear that in the present passage we ought not to connect ‘sub undis’ with ‘correpta,’ “volvit quae corripuit sub undis;” in which case the genius of the language would bear either reading.

[102-123] ‘The storm grows worse: the ships are dashed on rocks, stranded on sandbanks, or spring leaks, and one is wholly lost.’

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