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[57] The story of Sinon was the subject of a lost tragedy by Sophocles, and is variously told by Quinct. Smyrnaeus, Tryphiodorus, Dictys, Dares, and Tzetzes. See Introduction to this Book. In one of the versions he is made to mutilate himself like Ulysses in Od. 4. 244, a source from which, as Heyne suggests, the whole story may have originated. He is represented as the son of Aesimus the brother of Anticleia, and thus a first cousin to Ulysses.

[59] Ultro obtulerat: 8. 611. Serv. mentions another reading ‘quis (queis) se,’ which is still found in some copies.

[60] Hoc ipsum ut strueret, to compass this very thing, sc. to be brought to the king. The instances quoted of ‘struere insidias, dolos’ &c. are not strictly parallel, as they merely refer to scheming a thing against another, not to scheming a thing for one's self. Virg. however probably used ‘strueret’ as a “verbum insidiarum,” according to his usual custom, so as to secure the associations connected with the term, though the real analogy to his expression is to be found in such phrases as “rem struere,” and in the use of “moliri.” ‘Troiam aperiret Achivis’ is rightly understood by Henry not of actually opening the gates, which Sinon is not said to have done, but of his effecting an entrance for the Greeks by the story he tells, and by letting them out of the horse.

[61] Fidens animo is the reading of Rom., and of the MSS. of Sen. de Vita Beata 8. 3; but ‘fidens animi’ is supported by “furens animi,” 5. 202, “praestans animi,” 12. 19. The gen. is doubtless of the same class as those in 4. 529., 6. 332, G. 3. 289 &c., 4. 491, probably quasi-locative. See below on v. 120, Munro on Lucr. 1.136. “Armorum fidens” in Lucan 9. 373 looks like a misunderstanding of the phrase.

[62] Versare dolos: 11. 704. ‘Versare,’ like ‘versutus,πολύτροπος, to shift or shuffle; here to shuffle successfully: “Verte aliquid” Pers. 5. 137. Serv. with some MSS. reads ‘dolo,’ sc. ‘Troianos.’ ‘Certe,’ the common reading, before Pierius and Heins. restored ‘certae’ from the best MSS., has the authority of Med., Gud., and Pal. corrected. Though less poetical than ‘certae,’ it would not be without force, having the sense of ‘saltem,’ as in Cic. Tusc. 1. c. ult.—‘occumbere,’ 1. 97, note. Rom. originally has ‘occurrere.

[63] Undique: from all sides. Cic. 2 Verr. 2. 53, “concurritur undique ad istum Syracusas.

[64] Rom. has ‘certat,’ which was of course introduced because of ‘ruit.

[65] Aeneas, as Forb. and Henry observe, pointedly prepares to satisfy Dido's request 1. 753, “dicinsidias Danaum.” ‘Accipe,’ 1. 676. ‘Crimine:’ Serv. mentions a reading ‘crimen,’ supported also by Donatus, which was connected with ‘insidias,’ so as to improve the balance between ‘ab uno’ (sc. “e Danais”) and ‘omnis.’ Silius however evidently found ‘crimine,’ as appears from his imitation 6. 39, “nosces Fabios certamine ab uno.” ‘Omnis’ of course refers to ‘Danaos;’ ‘learn from a single act of guilt what all of them are.’

[67] It seems needless to inquire, with Henry and Forb., whether Sinon's emotion is altogether feigned. Aeneas is describing him as he saw him, first showing signs of utter prostration, then partially recovering himself, v. 76, though still trembling, v. 107 (where “ficto pectore” immediately follows “pavitans”). ‘Inermis’ comes in naturally, as he is in the midst of a furious and armed populace.

[69] Nunc simply ‘at this present time:’ ‘iam denique,’ ‘now at last, after all.’ With Sinon's exaggerated language comp. the more utter self-abandonment of Achemenides 3. 601, 605, and the taunts of Aeneas to Turnus 12. 892.

[71] Insuper was the old reading: ‘et super’ however, which was restored by Heins. from the best MSS., is necessary, as Wagn. has seen, on account of ‘neque.’ ‘Ipsi’ probably is not to be pressed, as though the Trojans might be expected to receive an outcast from the Greeks; it seems rather to have the force of “etiam.” See note on v. 394.

[72] “Dare” or “solvere sanguine poenas” occurs more than once, v. 366., 9. 422., 11. 592; but the modal abl. could not be used with ‘poscere,’ so ‘cum’ is introduced, ‘along with my blood,’ as “ex sanguine” is found with “sumere poenas” 11. 720., 12. 949.

[73] Quo gemitu: comp. v. 145, “his lacrimis,” and see on G. 1. 329, “quo motu.” ‘Conversi animi’ might mean ‘our attention was turned towards him,’ like “convertere animos acris oculosoue tulere cuncti ad reginam Volsci,” 11. 800: but the common interpretation of a revulsion of feeling is more probable, and is supported by an imitation in Sil. 10. 623, which Forb. quotes, “His dictis sedere minae et conversa repente Pectora: nunc fati miseret” &c.—‘Compressus et omnis Impetus,’ not ‘all fury ceased,’ as Trapp and probably the rest, understand it, but ‘every act of violence was stayed,’ like “impetum facere.” The Trojans would naturally be rushing on Sinon, or at any rate menacing him with their weapons.

[74, 75] The old pointing was after ‘memoret:’ Heyne put a stop after ‘ferat,’ which is to a certain extent supported by the parallel passage 3. 608, “Qui sit, fari, quo sanguine cretus, Hortamur; quae deinde agitet fortuna, fateri.” But it seems better to punctuate after ‘fari,’ so as to make all that follows an oratio obliqua, “memora quo sanguine cretus sis” &c. Comp. 1. 645 note. ‘Quae sit fiducia capto,’ ‘what he had to rely on as a captive,’— i. e. what intelligence he could offer, or, as Henry well gives it, why he should not meet the captive's doom,—not quite the same as Forb. after Burm., ‘qua fiducia ultro se captivum obtulerit,’ though it virtually includes that sense. Ribbeck's “quive fuat, memores quae” &c. is another of his unhappy conjectures. Much more ingenious is another suggestion by an unnamed young scholar, mentioned in his note, that a line should be supplied from the parallel passage in Book 3, “quidve ferat. Priamus rex ipse haud multa moratus Dat iuveni dextram, quae sit fiducia capto.” ‘Memorem’ is another reading mentioned by Serv.; but with it not much sense could be extracted from “quae sit fiducia capto.

[76] This line is repeated 3. 612, while here it is omitted in Med. (where it is added by another hand in the margin), Pal., and Gud., and not noticed by Serv. Heyne infers from Pomponius Sabinus that it was erased on critical grounds by Apronianus, whose recension Med. represents. Rom. unfortunately fails us here, having an extensive lacuna after v. 72, down to 3. 684. It is certain that Virg. frequently repeats himself (probably with the notion of imitating Hom.), and equally certain that the inferior MSS. frequently introduce lines from other parts of the poem into places where they have no business, so that it seems safest to print the verse in brackets. In itself it is sufficiently appropriate, in spite of a slight verbal inconsistency with v. 107, though not necessary, as with ‘inquit’ the beginning of Sinon's speech is not very abrupt.

[77-104] ‘He says his name is Sinon, a relation of Palamedes, whose death he resented, and thus incurred the enmity of Ulysses.’

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