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[31] The old pointing referred ‘sorori’ to ‘refert.’ Wagn. rightly remarks “‘dilecta sorori’ i.e. ‘mihi:sed blandius illud: similiter infra 435, ‘miserere sororis.’” It is in fact equivalent to ‘o soror, mihi luce magis dilecta.’ With ‘luce magis dilecta’ comp. 5. 724, “Nate, mihi vita quondam, dum vita manebat, Care magis.

[32] Henry's proposal to join ‘iuventa,’ an instrum. abl., with ‘carpere’ is very plausible, if only there were any authority for giving ‘iuventa’ the rhetorical sense of celibacy. Failing this, we must throw the stress on ‘sola maerens.’ ‘Are you to waste away, pining in loneliness, all through the springtide of life?’ In any case we may accept Henry's punctuation, which places a comma after ‘iuventa,’ so as to combine this line with the next, and also his quotation from Shakspeare, “Withering on the virgin thorn.”

[33] Dulcis natos 2. 138. ‘Veneris praemia’ may be the same thing as ‘dulcis natos’ (comp. Lucr. 1.147, “Non radii solis neque lucida tela diei,” and Munro's note): but it seems better to understand the words of the joys of wedded love, as δῶρ᾽ Ἀφροδίτης is used Il. 3. 54. ‘Praemia’ like “praemia vitaeLucr. 3.899 virtually = “dona.” ‘Noris’ is not “noscere cupis” (Forb.), but the future of “novi.

[34] Cinerem and ‘Manis’ are coupled again v. 427. ‘Manis sepultos’ is of course not very exactly expressed, the body and the spirit not being identified, and the latter being represented as buried because its natural dwelling is underground. We have had the same identification viewed from the other side G. 4. 475 (note). ‘Sepultos’ is a significant epithet: ‘they are underground: how should they care for what goes on above?’

[35] Esto refers to what follows, so that it had best be distinguished only by a comma. ‘Aegram’ expresses the state which prevented Dido fron. entertaining former proposals of marriage, not the effect of ‘flexere.’ Its position in the verse gives it a rhetorical emphasis, Anna being anxious to show that she understands the past history of her sister's feelings. The sense of desolation had been too strong for such weak inducements as former suitors had to offer. ‘Flexere:’ see on v. 22, to which this is an answer. ‘Mariti’ might be explained on the principle mentioned on 2. 344, E. 8. 1, 18; but the separation which this would involve between ‘nulli’ and ‘mariti’ would be harsh, so that we had better say that ‘mariti’ rhctorically = “proci.

[36] Libya is the first reading of Pal., but Serv. acknowledges ‘Libyae.’ ‘Iarbas’ vv. 196 foll.

[37] Africa terra may be either a pleonasm or a return to the old mode of expression, when, as Forb. says, all distinctive names of countries were adjectives. Comp. Enn. Sat. fr. 10, “Lati campi quos gerit Africa terra politos.” ‘Triumphis dives,’ as in 1. 339 the “fines Libyci” are called “genus intractabile bello.

[38] Placito like “placitam PaciG. 2. 425. With ‘pugnabis’ Henry comp. Catull. 60 (62). 59, “At tu ne pugna cum tali coniuge, virgo.

[39] The dangerous neighbourhood of Carthage has been already adverted to 1. 339, 563, &c.

[40] Comp. 1. 339. Rom. reads ‘intractabile’ here.

[41] Infreni refers to the habit of the Numidians of riding without bridles, for which Forb. comp. Sil. 1. 215, “Numidae, gens nescia freni;” but it is hard to avoid suspecting that Virg. intended the epithet to have a further symbolical application. Perhaps it would not be going too far to translate ‘the Numidians, unbridled as their own horses.’ ‘Cingunt’ is not to be pressed, as Virg. is expressly speaking of Dido's neighbours on one side only. ‘Inhospita Syrtis’ again may be meant to have a double reference—primarily to the Syrtes as unfriendly to ships, secondarily to the tribes near as barbarous to strangers —the latter being of course that which constitutes the real point of the words, as part of Anna's argument. See on the next verse. Comp. generally 1. 540, “hospitio prohibemur arenae.

[42] Deserta siti regio is rather pointless, as Anna's meaning is that the aid of the Trojan alliance is necessary against barbarous neighbours: but we must suppose that having launched into the enumeration of the discomforts of their position, she includes dangers of more kinds than one. We may say, if we please, that the mention of the Syrtes paved the way for the confusion. Some inferior MSS. have ‘lateque vagantes.

[43] The mention of Barce is an anachronism, as the town was not founded till long afterwards by the descendants of Battus, Hdt. 4. 160. Dido's fears from Pygmalion are glanced at again v. 325.

[45] Juno is doubtless mentioned both as the patroness of Carthage and as the goddess of marriage.

[46] For ‘hunc’ inferior MSS. give ‘huc,’ which was once the common reading. The two come to the same thing, but ‘hunc’ is the more poetical. We have had the same variety 1. 534.

[47] ‘What a change you will see in this your city!’

[48] Coniugio tali seems to be an abl. of circumstance, belonging both to ‘quam tu urbem hanc cernes’ and ‘quae surgere regna.

[49] Quantis rebus = ‘quantis opibus,’ ‘quanta fortuna.

[50] Tu giving force to a precept G. 4. 106 note. Perhaps Forb. may be right in supposing a contrast here with ‘Dis auspicibus’ v. 45. ‘Posce deo veniam,’ to avert the anger portended by the illomened dreams of v. 9. Anna assumes that the gods will be easy to reconcile. ‘Sacra litare’ is found elsewhere, as in Ov. M. 14. 156.

[51] ‘Give the rein to hospitality,’ Forb., after Wund., finds a peculiar beauty in ‘innecte,’ Dido being supposed to weave her chains round Aeneas. This may very probably be the case, though the word also contains the notion of stringing together excuses for delay. Comp. 9. 219, “caussas nequiquam nectis inanis.

[52] Desaevit, rages his fill, as in 10. 569, not ceases to rage, as the next line shows. ‘Aquosus Orion’ like “nimbosus Orion” 1. 535. “Piscis aquosiG. 4. 235.

[53] Quassataeque rates: comp. 1. 551. ‘Non tractabile caelum:’ comp. “brumae intractabilisG. 1. 211 note. Ov. Her. 19. 71 has “est mare, confiteor, nondum tractabile nanti.

[54-89] ‘Dido's scruples are soothed. She and her sister sacrifice: but what can sacrificing do for love? Her whole being is mastered; the day is spent in taking Aeneas round the city; the evening in banqueting and hearing more recitals about Troy; the night in lonely weeping. She forgets her empire: the works are all suspended.’

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