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[331] Inmota, not relenting into pity. Dido's words vv. 369, 370 furnish the best comment on the word.

[332] Comp. 1. 209 note. ‘Premebat’ however is more emphatic than “premit” there.

[333] Pauca. Aeneas' speech is longer than Dido's; but ‘pauca,’ like ‘tandem,’ seems to express Virg.'s feeling that the words come slowly and with effort, and bear no comparison to what the lover would have said had he given way to his emotion.

[335] Promeritam refers to “si bene quid de te merui” v. 317. ‘Elissae’ here and elsewhere is the spelling of Med. and other good MSS. for ‘Elisae.’ Aeneas speaks of Dido in the third person, as she has spoken of herself v. 308.

[336] Perhaps from Il. 22. 387, 388, where however, though the words are nearly the same, the tenderness expressed is much greater. The sentiment may be from Apoll. R. 3. 1079 foll., where Jason, having been requested by Medea to remember her, promises to do so, also with more warmth of feeling than Aeneas. ‘Regit’ was restored by Heins. from Med. and others for the old reading ‘reget.’ The future would undoubtedly be more usual in this connexion (comp. 1. 607, E. 5. 76 &c.), and the confusion of ‘i’ and ‘e’ in the terminations of verbs is very frequent in MSS.: the present however seems to be found occasionally, as in Cato ap. Gell. 16. 1, “bene factum a vobis, dum vivitis, non abscedet,” where there does not appear to be a variety of reading.

[337] Pro re seems to mean ‘as circumstances allow.’ “Quisque suum pro re [conpostum] maestus humabat” Lucr. 6. 1281. Thus it harmonizes with ‘pauca,’ the meaning being that the urgency of the case admits only a short reply. D. Heinsius read ‘pro te:’ ‘pro me’ would be better, if any change were wanted. ‘Abscondere,’ to hide; in the present connexion, to accomplish secretly. ‘Furto’ = “furtim,” as in 6. 24. A Greek poet would have expressed the three words by κλέπτειν φυγήν.

[338] ‘Do not feign it,’ do not deceive yourself by the thought.

[339] ‘I did not come with a bridegroom's torch in my hand.’ The bridegroom does not seem to have carried the torch in the nuptial ceremony; but Virg., having occasion to use ‘praetendere’ to express a profession, chooses to develope the physical image which is the first intention of the word. ‘Haec’ is emphatic. Aeneas in effect says “Veni in hospitalia foedera, non in coniugalia.” With ‘venire in foedus’ comp. Livy 26. 40, “Voluntaria deditione in fidem venerunt ad quadraginta oppida.” With the general form of expression Forb. comp. 10. 901, “nec sic ad proelia veni, Nec tecum meus haec pepigit mihi foedera Lausus.

[340] Meis auspiciis seems rightly explained by Wund. as a military metaphor. The imperator had the right of taking the auspices, and so was said to act “suis auspiciis,” while the legatus would act “alienis auspiciis.” ‘Meis auspiciis’ then = “meo arbitrio.

[341] Sponte mea is synonymous with ‘meis auspiciis.’ ‘Sponte’ in ordinary Latin is restricted to those actions which a person does of his own will or authority, whence the elliptical use of ‘sponte’ alone for ‘sponte mea,’ ‘tua,’ ‘sua’ &c., though this seems to have been in the first instance a poetical licence. Cic. however talks of “sua sponte, non aliena” (Legg. 1. 17), and later writers, such as Tacitus, Lucan, and Valerius Flaccus, use it with a genitive of the person at whose instance another acts. ‘Conponere curas,’ as we might say, ‘to unravel the tangles of my destiny.’ Aeneas' lot had been troubled enough by the capture of Troy: and he thinks the best remedy he could have suggested would have been the restoration of the fallen city.

[343] Colerem seems to be used in two somewhat different senses with ‘urbem’ and ‘reliquias,’ the notion in the first case being that of inhabiting, in the second of paying respect. Aeneas means to say that he would inhabit Troy again, and thus honour the relics of its former state. The imperfect, as contrasted with the pluperfect v. 344, may thus be explained as speaking of a continuing act, so that we need not think with Wund. of the definite action of sacrificing at the graves of the departed, which he ingeniously remarks might be spoken of in the imperfect, as repeated once a year. ‘Manerent,’ like ‘colerem,’ of restoration to permanence; the expression however is doubtless meant to intimate that the restoration would efface the memory of the fall, reminding us of the language of 2. 56. ‘Priam's lofty halls would still be standing.’

[344] ‘Recidivus’ is rather a favourite word with Virg., occurring again 7. 322., 10. 58, each time as an epithet of ‘Pergama.’ It has nothing to do, as Serv. and other commentators have thought, with the ordinary sense of “cadere,” as if it could mean ‘rising after a fall,’ but belongs to the special use of “recidere” = “redire.” Thus it is parallel to “deciduus,” “occiduus,” just as “nocuus” and “nocivus,” “vacuus” and “vacivus” exist together. Some MSS. give ‘rediviva.’ The words are frequently confounded, being virtually synonymous as well as similar in appearance. ‘Manu’ here is almost pleonastic; but it seems to contain, in however slight a degree, the notion of personal and successful effort, so as to be virtually equivalent to “ipse.” See on G. 2. 156.

[345] Italiam magnam like “Hesperiam magnam” 1. 569. ‘GryneusE. 6. 72.

[346] Sortes oracles. “Dictae per carmina sortes” Hor. A. P. 403. We know nothing from Virg. of any response of Apollo on the subject of Italy except that given at Delos in Book 3; but these new particulars may have been either invented by the poet, or taken from some legend. On the one hand Virg. is fond of conveying information indirectly; on the other the difficulties of his subject, the embarras de richesses of his materials— traditions incompatible with each other, yet equally capable of being used in poetry —and his own love of poetical variety, make him sometimes inconsistent. For a similar use of ‘capessere’ Wund. quotes Cic. Att. 10. 9, “Melitam igitur capessamus.

[347] Hic amor, this, i. e. Italy, is the object of my affection, the pronoun, as usual, being attracted to the substantive. See Madvig, § 313. ‘Hic’ however, might conceivably be the adverb: comp. 7. 122, “Hic domus, haec patria est.” ‘Amor’ as in E. 7. 21.

[348] Aeneas puts the case rhetorically, as if it were the charm in the appearance of a Libyan city that had such power over Dido. ‘Aspectus’ may either be taken in its ordinary sense, ‘if you are kept here gazing on a Libyan city,’ or in the sense of ‘species,’ which it bears several times in Pliny: see Forc. ‘Detinet,’ as we might say, keeps spell-bound, like “moratur.” Serv. mentions another reading, ‘demeret,’ which might possibly stand in the sense of ‘earns your favour.’

[349] ‘What jealousy is there?’ = ‘why should it be an object of jealousy?’ The expression occurs Catalecta 14. 8. “Hunc superesse patri quae fuit invidia?” Wund. comp. the use of φθόνος. With the rest of the line comp. 6. 67, 807.

[351] Another allusion to a thing which Virg. has not mentioned directly. The only appearance of Anchises is that mentioned in 5. 722 foll.; but in 6. 695 Aeneas says that his father has frequently appeared and urged him to visit the shades.

[353] Forb. refers to Heins. on Ov. M. 13. 216 to show that ‘admonet’ is a word specially used of dream-warnings. ‘Turbidus’ (= “commotus”), when used of persons, is generally applied to the excitement of rage, as 9. 57., 11. 742; but it may express other excitements, such as that of fear, 11. 814. Here perhaps our word ‘agitated’ would give its meaning, so that it would answer nearly to “tua tristis imago” in the parallel passage 6. 695. The apparition of Anchises is perhaps separable from Anchises himself, as would appear from the passage just referred to; but in any case anger would scarcely suit the relation between Aeneas and his father, and Anchises' feeling at this time would doubtless be that which he is himself made to express (6. 694), “Quam metui, ne quid Libyae tibi regna nocerent!

[354] From ‘admonet’ and ‘terret’ we supply some such word as “commovet.” Aeneas' meaning of course is that the thought of Ascanius weighs with him. That thought, we may remember, had just been suggested to him by Mercury. ‘Caput’ in expressions like this is not a mere periphrasis, but is used generally where there is some question of personal loss or personal honour. Here we may think of “capitis deminutio.

[355] Fatalibus arvis 5. 82.

[356] Interpres divom, elsewhere applied to soothsayers (3. 474., 10. 175), here is used of Mercury, the notion in each case being the same, ‘the spokesman of the gods,’ the medium between gods and men. See on v. 608 below.

[357] Utrumque caput is best taken ‘mine and thine.’ There is the same oath in Ov. Her. 3. 107,Perque tuum nostrumque caput, quae iunximus una.” Comp. also Apoll. R. 3. 151῾απηροδιτε το ερος᾿ ἴστω νῦν τόδε σεῖο φίλον κάρη ἠδ᾽ ἐμὸν αὐτῆς”. Some have thought of Ascanius' head, which Aeneas would couple either with his own or with his father's; but though this would agree well with 9. 300, it could not well stand in the present context. The remaining interpretation, Jupiter's and Mercury's, might stand in place of a better, but requires the authority of a parallel to give it positive value.

[358] Manifesto in lumine: comp. 3. 151. Here perhaps there may be a reference to the Homeric φαίνεσθαι ἐναργῆ. There seems no reference to the supernatural light sometimes diffused by the presence of the gods, as 2. 590. This and the following line are imitated from Il. 24. 223, where Priam says of Aeneas αὐτὸς γὰρ ἄκουσα θεοῦ καὶ ἐσέδρακον ἄντην.

[359] Intrantem muros seems merely to mean ‘entering the city.’

[360] Incendere is applied to the agitation of grief as well as of anger, 9. 500. It is in the former sense that we must understand it as applied to Aeneas, though no sharp distinction is intended between the excitement which Aeneas and Dido would respectively feel in prolonging a scene like this.

[361] Sequi may have the sense of ‘petere;’ in other words it may be used of seeking a stationary object. “Si spes erit, Epirum, sin minus, Cyzicum aut aliud quid sequemur” Cic. Att. 3. 16. Here however the word is probably chosen to express the difficulty of finding Italy, which seems to retire as he advances, as in 5. 629 (comp. 3. 496., 6. 61), “Italiam sequimur fugientem.” Comp. also Dido's words in Ov. Her. 7. 10,Quaeque ubi sint nescis, Itala regna sequi.

[362-392] ‘Dido had kindled during his speech, and at last breaks out. He is a traitor, savage and hard-hearted. She can trust neither men nor gods. She had done all for him, and now he leaves her, putting her off with base excuses. Let him go: she will be avenged on him, and will haunt him after death. She leaves him, faints, and is carried away.’

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