This description of a night where a lover only is wakeful is from Apoll. R. 3. 743. Virg. is more general in his treatment than his prototype, who discriminates the time by saying that the sailors gazed from their ships on Helice and Orion, that wayfarers and porters began to long for sleep, that even bereaved mothers slumbered, and that the barking of dogs was hushed. Comp. also 8. 26, 27., 9. 224, 225, where Virg. repeats himself in a compressed form.
 The meaning seems to be that rustling woods and dashing waves are lulled in the windless calm, and that the creatures who inhabit them are asleep. To restrict the meaning to the first sense would be inconsistent with the context, as the animal creation is evidently brought into prominence throughout, as affording a contrast to Dido, while ‘saeva’ on the other hand shows that the poet was thinking of the waters as they are in themselves, and not merely in relation to their inhabitants. ‘Quierant’ is not the same as “quiescebant:” it means ‘had composed themselves and were at rest.’
 Cum seems to refer back to ‘nox erat,’ as if he had said ‘tempus erat cum.’ The emphatic word is ‘medio:’ it is midnight, and the stars are half-way in their course. ‘Lapsus’ is applied to the stars by Cic. Div. 1. 11.
 Tacet omnis ager may refer to the cessation of the toils of husbandry, though it is not to be restricted to that sense. The pointing of this line depends on the view we take of v. 528: if it is spurious, ‘pecudes’ &c. must be constructed with ‘tacet:’ if genuine, they form a new sentence as subjects to ‘lenibant.’ ‘Pecudes pictaeque volucres’ G. 3. 243 note.quaeque—quaeque’ epexegetical of ‘volucres,’ though perhaps the general requirements of the sentence, taken alone, would be better consulted by giving the relative a more extended reference.
 Positae i. q. “iacentes,” as in 2. 644. Whether ‘somno’ is the dat., ‘for sleep,’ or the abl. ‘in’ or ‘by sleep,’ is not clear. Perhaps ‘in sleep’ is the most probable, as in the expression ‘somno iacens’ E. 6. 14, G. 4. 404, comp. by Forb. ‘Sub nocte silenti’ 7. 87.
 This line, which, with the variation of ‘laxabant’ for ‘lenibant,’ occurs again 9. 225, is omitted here by Med., Pal., and others of the better MSS. After all that has been said, it seems to be almost wholly a question of external evidence, as the passage would I think be equally good with and without it; though the pointing, as has been said above, will have to be differently arranged according as it is accepted or rejected. The change of ‘lenibant’ for ‘laxabant’ may perhaps be, as Forb. contends, a slight argument for its genuineness; but though ‘lenibant’ is a word which Virg. might have written, it is no more than might have occurred by a slip of the memory to an ingenious grammarian. On the whole, while considering that the balance of probability is against the verse, I have retained it in brackets, as I have usually done in such cases.
 ‘At non:’ see on G. 3. 349., 4. 530. If we retain v. 528, we supply ‘lenibat’ &c.: if not, ‘tacet’ or some equivalent word. ‘Infelix animi,’ like “fidens animi” 2. 61, “dubius animi” G. 3. 289, “victus animi” G. 4. 491. For ‘nec’ Heins. introduced ‘neque,’ the first reading of Pal., and supported by the first reading of Med., which is ‘naeq.’
 Solvitur in somnos like “laxabant membra quiete” 5. 836. ‘Oculis aut pectore noctem accipit’ seems to be an expression of Virg.'s own. Mr. Tennyson has given us a characteristically beautiful rendering of it (Idylls, p. 29), “ever failed to draw The quiet night into her blood,” though his expression suits better the greater passivity of his heroine. Comp. also 9. 326, “toto proflabat pectore somnum.”
 The stillness of night makes her worse by leaving her to her own thoughts. Comp. 1. 662, “sub noctem cura recursat.” The language here and v. 532 is borrowed from a storm; so that we may comp. G. 1. 333, “ingeminant austri et densissimus imber.”
 Forb. comp. Lucr. 3.298, “Nec capere irarum fluctus in pectore possunt.” Comp. A. 12. 831. It may be doubted whether the subject of ‘fluctuat’ is ‘amor’ or Dido herself. Comp. v. 564 below. Catull. 62 (64). 62, “Prospicit et magnis curarum fluctuat undis,” which Virg. doubtless imitated, would be in favour of the latter.
 Adeo seems slightly to emphasize ‘sic:’ ‘it is thus that.’ ‘Insistit’ is apparently to be explained from “viam insiste” G. 3. 164, so that it nearly = ‘incipit.’ So “institit ore” 12. 47. ‘Secum corde volutat’ 1. 50 note.
 For ‘ago’ some MSS. have ‘agam:’ but ‘quid ago’ occurs in similar passages 10. 675., 12. 637, and Pers. 3. 5 has “En quid agis?” ‘Ago’ is rather πράσσω than δρῶ. ‘En:’ see on E. 1. 68. It is a question whether ‘inrisa’ refers to her rejection by Aeneas, which might seem a reason for her betaking herself to other suitors, as a celibate life had become henceforward impossible for her, or to the certain derision she would undergo from this abatement of her pride. In the latter case we may comp. 7. 425, “I nunc, ingratis offer te, inrise, periclis,” though there also a question may be raised about the precise reference of the word.
 Experiar is perhaps not strictly accurate with ‘rursus,’ as it could be only after Dido's rejection by Aeneas that she could have any doubt of the temper of her former lovers. ‘Nomadum’ for Africans generally.
 Igitur implies that a negative answer has been mentally given to the preceding question. ‘Ultima Teucrum iussa sequar’ is rightly explained by Pomponius Sabinus, who remarks, “puta quod loquatur ad miserationem, quasi quod, si naviget cum Troianis, sit futura serva.” ‘Ultima’ then will = “infima” or “extrema:” see Forcell. So ἔσχατον ἀνδράποδον is found Alciphron Ep. 43. § 4. The Ovidian Dido offers to follow Aeneas in any capacity (Her. 7 167): Ariadne is willing to be Theseus' handmaid (Catull. 62 (64). 158 foll.). The general thought of Dido accompanying the Trojans is doubtless taken, as Henry remarks, from the example of Medea in Apoll. R. 4. 81 foll. ‘Iussa sequi’ G. 3. 40. Here ‘sequar’ is used in its ordinary sense with ‘classis,’ a somewhat metaphorical one with ‘iussa.’
 ‘Am I to assume that they have any sense of gratitude?’ The construction is ‘sequarne classis &c. quia iuvat Teucros ante levatos esse auxilio?’ Comp. a similar passage in Catull. 62 (64). 180 foll., “An patris auxilium sperem? quemne ipsa reliqui? . . . Coniugis an fido consoler memet amore? Quine fugit?” ‘Auxilio levare’ 2. 451.
 For ‘et’ a few MSS. give ‘aut,’ which Heyne adopted. ‘Gratia facti’ 7. 232. The editors do not say with what word ‘bene’ is to be taken. The most satisfactory course, so far as ordinary Latinity goes, would be to join it with ‘facti,’ if the distance between the two could be overlooked. Failing that, it would be possible to construct it with either ‘memores’ or ‘stat.’ In the latter case ‘bene stat’ would mean not ‘is firmly fixed,’ but ‘is kindly entertained,’ ‘stat’ having still the notion of permanence.
 Me sinet: comp. G. 4. 7 note. With Ribbeck I have retained ‘ratibusve,’ the reading of Med., Pal., and others. The later editors generally prefer the other reading ‘ratibusque.’ In a context like this the copulative and disjunctive come nearly to the same thing.
 Invisam was restored by Heins. after Pierius from the better MSS., including the first reading of Med. ‘Inrisam,’ the second reading, acknowledged by Serv., who also mentions ‘invisam,’ is evidently repeated from v. 534. It matters little whether the comma be placed before or after ‘heu.’
 Comp. G. 1. 502.
 Prima does not imply that others did it afterwards, but that Anna was the author of the mischief. Comp. 5. 596.
 Comp. above vv. 54, 55.
[550, 551] Non licuit is a passionate exclamation. We should probably say ‘Why was it not allowed me?’ Dido grieves that she could not live an unwedded life. Probably she is not thinking here of Sychaeus, though in the next line she bewails her unfaithfulness to his memory. She wishes that she had been born to a wild life in the woods, like Camilla, without any thought of wedlock. It is not constancy to her first mate, but simply wildness, undisturbed by human passions and frailties, that is now in her mind. ‘More ferae’ is startling, but it ceases to be strange if we understand it, with Henry, not of a beast's life as contrasted with a man's in respect of the union of the sexes, but generally of the life of beasts as contrasted with civilization and its attendant weaknesses. Camilla's virginity arose out of her wild life: she would not submit to a husband's yoke, as her father would not yield to civic restraints, “neque ipse manus feritate dedisset” 11. 568. So Orpheus, obdurate to love after Eurydice's death, wanders among rocks and snows, G. 4. 507 —an instance which may be urged by those who think that ‘thalami expertem’ is to be understood with Serv., “non omnino, sed post Sychaeum.” So the saying that a man who delights in solitude must be ἢ θηρίον ἢ θεός. The Greek use of ἄδμητος for unmarried seems indeed to express the main thought which Virg. wished to convey. This may perhaps be a sufficient account of words which have caused so much perplexity, though it would be well if further illustration could be obtained. Serv. thinks the reference is to a particular kind of beast, such as a lynx, which, if a quotation he makes from Pliny is to be trusted, after losing its first mate never takes a second. Mr. Long explains ‘more ferae’ by ‘sine crimine,’ beasts having no sense of good and evil. Quinct. Inst. 9. 2. 64 notes this as an instance of concealed feeling breaking out, Dido, in the very words in which she inveighs against marriage, acknowledging that it is the state for men as men. It matters little whether ‘expertem’ be taken with ‘me’ or with ‘vitam.’ ‘Sine crimine’ expresses with more self-reproach what is afterwards expressed by ‘talis nec tangere curas.’ ‘Tangere,’ to meddle with. Otherwise we might have had “nec talibus tangi curis,” comp. 12. 933.
 For ‘Sychaeo’ Med. and some others have ‘Sychaei,’ which looks like a correction. ‘Sychaeus’ seems here to be used as adj., Virg. having taken advantage of the adjectival termination. Comp. “laticem Lyaeum” 1. 686. So “Romulus,” “Dardanus,” for “Romuleus,” “Dardanius.” Serv. proposes to separate ‘cineri’ from ‘Sychaeo,’ placing a stop after ‘cineri,’ ‘the faith pledged to the living has not been kept to the dead.’ Brunck suggests that ‘cineri’ may be in apposition to ‘Sychaeo,’ the dead Sychaeus.