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[225] Iamque second in a sentence, as in 3. 588. ‘Fine,’ the end of the course v. 328. By the time Mnestheus passed Gyas, there was not much longer space.

[226] Adnixus Med., Rom., ‘enixus’ Pal., Gud.

[227] The difference between Ovid's treatment of a subject and Virg.'s is amusingly exemplified in the description of the race of Hippomenes and Atalanta M. 10. 656: “Adiiciunt animos iuveni clamorque favorque
Verbaque dicentum: Nunc, nunc incumbere tempus,
Hippomene propera: nunc viribus utere totis:
Pelle moram: vinces.

Virg. has followed Il. 23. 766, ἴαχον δ᾽ ἐπὶ πάντες Ἀχαιοὶ Νίκης ἱεμένῳ, μάλα δὲ σπεύδοντι κέλευον.

[228] Resonatque fragoribus was restored by Heins. from Med. and Rom. for ‘resonat clamoribus,’ the reading of Pal. and Gud. One MS. gives ‘resonatque clamoribus,’ and Pierius hints at the possibility of an amphimacer Quinct. 8. 3 speaks of “fragor plaudentium et acclamantium.

[229] Possibly Virg. may intend a Greek construction, “indignantur honorem, ni illum teneant;” but it is simpler not to place a comma after ‘honorem.’ ‘Proprium,’ like ‘partum,’ already made their own.

[230] In 12. 49 Turnus says to Latinus “letumque sinas pro laude pacisci,” where, though the contrary word is used, the sense is the same. As Heyne well remarks on the latter passage, in the one case a covenant is made about life, as a thing to be given up, in the other a covenant is made about death, as a thing to be undergone. He might have observed further that there is great propriety in the change of terms: Cloanthus and his crew do not look upon death as a serious thing, so that the mention of it would strike a wrong chord: with Turnus death is only too stern a reality.

[231] Videntur: i. e. ‘sibi,’ not as Serv. and some of the later commentators think, ‘spectantibus.’ Their success makes them believe that they have the power, and the belief gives them it. So Henry.

[232] The form of expression is from Hom., who is fond of introducing an unexpected event as something but for which things would have taken a different turn, e. g. Il. 23. 382. ‘Aequatis rostris’ like “iunctis frontibus” above v. 157.

[233] In Il. 23. 768 foll. Ulysses wins the foot-race by praying to Athena, by whose special favour Diomed had won the chariot-race (ib. 399). The language of this line is perhaps from Il. 1. 350. For the irregular ‘palmas utrasque’ for ‘palmam utramque’ see Madv. § 495, obs. 2, where instances are given from Caesar, Sallust, and Livy.

[234] “In vota vocavit” v. 514 below, 7. 471., 12. 780. The more common expression is ‘votis vocare’ (G. 1. 157 &c.), which Heyne regards as precisely parallel to this, supposing ‘votis’ to be dat.; a comparison however of the constructions ‘votis exposcere’ (3. 261), ‘venerari’ (7. 597), ‘optare’ (10. 279), ‘petere’ (12. 259), will show that it is probably abl. The meaning here doubtless is, summons or invites them to be parties to his vow, like “vocamus In partem praedamque Iovem” 3. 222, which Heyne comp.

[235] Est pelagi, the reading of Pal. and Gud., is supported by 6. 264, “Di, quibus inperium est animarum.” ‘Pelagi est’ was adopted by Wagn. from Rom. Med. has ‘est pelagi’ in the text, but marks have been added reversing the words. Some MSS. omit ‘est’ altogether. It was doubtless the omission in some early copy, if not in Virg.'s own autograph, that led to the diversity of order. ‘Aequora curro’ 3. 191. Rom. and Gud. have ‘aequore.

[236] Laetus v. 58 above, note. “Nitentem . . . mactabam in litore taurum” 3. 20. Comp. ib. 119, where a bull is sacrificed to Neptune.

[237] Constituam G. 4. 542 note. So the victim is said ‘stareG. 2. 395. ‘Voti reusE. 5. 80 note. ‘Reus’ is used in Roman law with a gen. of the thing in respect of which a person is bound, ‘reus pecuniae,’ ‘dotis,’ ‘satisdandi’ &c.: see Forc.

[238] ‘Porricere’ was the technical term for presenting entrails to the gods, as Macrob. Sat. 3. 2 remarks, citing Veranius, who quotes from the 1st book of Fabius Pictor, “Exta porriciunto, diis danto in altaria aramve focumve eove quo exta dari debebunt.” Here, as it is the sea-gods who are invoked, the offering is made by casting the entrails into the sea, a custom also mentioned by Livy 29. 27, “Secundum eas preces cruda exta victimae, uti mos est, in mare porricit, tubaque signum dedit proficiscendi.” This application of the word happens to suit the etymology, if it is rightly derived, as Festus thinks, and the form of the word would suggest, from ‘porro iacere,’ instead of being a cognate form of ‘porrigere.’ Most MSS., including Med. (originally), Pal., Rom., and Gud., give ‘proiiciam,’ a natural variation, recognized by Serv., but expressly condemned by Macrob. l. c. See on v. 776, where the line is repeated. ‘Lĭquentia’ here: ‘līquentia’ 1. 432 &c. The one may be from ‘liquere,’ the latter from ‘liqui.’ ‘Ac vina’ Pal. and Gud., as in v. 776.

[239] ἔκλυε . . . ἡμένη ἐν βένθεσσιν ἁλός Il. 1. 357. Rom. has ‘audit et omnis.

[240] “Glauci chorus . . . . Phorcique exercitus omnis . . . Panopeaque virgo” below v. 823. ‘Nereidum’ 3. 74 note. Heyne suggested that ‘Panopeaque virgo’ should be coupled with ‘inpulit,’ comparing 1. 144, where Cymothoe and Triton join to push the ships off the rock. With the present pointing Panopea is distinguished from the rest for the sake of poetical variety.

[241] Pater: see on G. 2. 4. “Inpulit ipsa manu” 7. 621. ‘Manu magna inpulit’ is from Enn. A. 558, preserved by Schol. Veron. here: but Virg. may also have thought of Il. 15. 694, τὸν δὲ Ζεὺς ὦσεν ὄπισθεν Χειρὶ μάλα μεγάλῃ. It is used of Portunus as a god, as “ingenti manu” below v. 487 of Aeneas as a hero. Portunus comes in appropriately here as the Roman sea-god, identified with the Greek Melicerta or Palaemon (v. 823 below, G. 1. 437). The circumstance is perhaps from Apoll. R. 2. 598, where Athene pushes the Argo through the Symplegades, Id. 4. 930, where the Nereids and Thetis push it through the Planetae, ib. 1609, where Triton performs a similar office for it, besides the passages in Il. 23 already referred to.

[242] “ δ᾽ ἰκέλη πτερόεντι μετήορος ἔσσυτ᾽ ὀιστῷApoll. R. 2. 600.

[243] Portu alto, λιμένος πολυβενθέος Il. 1. 432.

[244-267] ‘Aeneas proclaims Cloanthus conqueror, and rewards the three crews and their captains.’

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