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[362] Peragere dona, to distribute all the prizes in succession, and so finish all about them. Not unlike is “sol duodena peregit Signa” Ov. M. 13. 617, of the sun passing through the signs of the zodiac.

[363] Praesens with ‘animus,’ not with ‘virtus.’ The combination ‘praesens animus’ is very common, ‘praesens’ apparently meaning ‘promptus.’ “Animus acer et praesens et acutus idem atque versutus invictos viros facit” Cic. De Or. 2. 20. “Animo virili praesentique ut sis para” Ter. Phorm. 5. 8. 64. “Non plures tantum Macedones quam ante tuebantur urbem, sed etiam praesentioribus animis,” Livy 31. 46. It hardly answers to our “presence of mind,” which is restricted to collectedness, and does not include energetic vigour. The colloquial “having one's wits about one” is nearer to it. Virg. may conceivably have thought of Il. 23. 698, where the friends of the beaten boxer take him away ἀλλοφρονέοντα, as we might say ‘all abroad,’ though this is the result, not the cause of his defeat. In the combat between Amycus and Pollux, Val. Fl. 4. 303, we have “sentit enim Pollux rationis egentem” (Flaccus having had his eye on Virg., A. 8. 299), hitting about wildly. Comp. also Il. 13. 713 οὐ γάρ σφι σταδίῃ ὑσμίνῃ μίμνε φίλον κῆρ, where courage seems to be the notion. ‘In pectore’ may go with ‘virtus’ as well as with ‘animus praesens:’ but it signifies little. The early critics from the time of Serv. made some difficulty about the punctuation of the line, being inclined to connect ‘adsit’ with ‘praesens.’ This boxing-match is generally from Hom., Il. 23. 653 foll.

[364] Attollat bracchia imitated from Il. 23. 660, πὺξ μάλ᾽ ἀνασχομένω πεπληγέμεν. In Hom. we only hear of one of the candidates having his hands bound with thongs of leather (v. 684). For the different kinds of ‘caestus’ see Dict. A. s. v.

[365] Pugnae gen. “Inferior pugnae nec honore recedes” 12. 630: “vitae mortalis honoremG. 4. 326.

[366] Velatum auro vittisque is variously taken to mean either ‘velatum vittis auratis’ or ‘auratis cornibus et vittatum.’ The first would be more natural so far as mere language goes: but no instances are quoted of fillets intertwined with gold, whereas bullocks with gilded horns were not unfrequently offered in sacrifice, as in 9. 627, Hom. Od. 3. 384. The custom belonged to the old Romans no less than to the Greeks of the heroic time. Lersch Antiqq. Verg. § 63 refers to the Tables of the Fratres Arvales 19. 7 &c. We must then suppose ‘velatus’ to be used with both by a kind of zeugma, which is not unnatural. Hom. has χρυσὸν κέρασιν περιχεύας. The process is described ib. vv. 432 foll.

[367] So in Il. 23. 664 foll. Epeus comes forward at once. Virg. has softened the traits of his original, as the Homeric champion is more boastful and self-confident than Dares, and more successful also. ‘Vastis viribus’ without ‘cum’ would have been more usual: the addition of the preposition however seems to give the notion that he rose with all his bulk about him, as we might say. The expressions classified by Madv. § 257 obss. are not quite of the same kind. We may however comp. the use of σύν, as in Hom. Od. 24. 192, ἄρα σὺν μεγάλῃ ἀρετῇ ἐκτήσω ἄκοιτιν.

[368] Effert ora = “effert caput.” ‘Murmure,’ of approbation. Serv. ingeniously suggests that the lines that follow contain the substance of what the people whisper: but the rules of construction will not admit this. We may however thank the critic for the hint, as Virg. may have intended us to fill up his description in this way, though there is nothing in his words to indicate it.

[369] We hear nothing of Paris' pugilistic skill in Hom.: other accounts however made him excel in athletic sports, the story being that having been brought up among shepherds, he first made himself known to his father by proving himself the conqueror in all of a series of games instituted by the king. (Hygin. Fabb. 91. 273.) It is remarkable that the champion in Il. 23. 670, proclaiming his own prowess, admits that he is inferior as a warrior: οὐχ ἅλις ὅττι μάχης ἐπιδεύομαι; οὐδ᾽ ἄρα πως ἦν Ἐν πάντεσσ᾽ ἔργοισι δαήμονα φῶτα γενέσθαι.

[371] Idemque=‘et qui,’ which Wagn. has made clear by changing the semicolon after ‘contra’ to a comma. ‘Occubat’= “sepultus iacet,” as in 10. 706. See on 1. 547. The mention of games at Hector's funeral is supposed to have been derived from the cyclic poets. Dares Phrygius briefly notices them, c. 25.

[372, 373] Butes is not known otherwise. ‘Victorem,’ “qui omnes devicerat” Gossrau, rightly, though no parallel instance of the word is quoted. ‘Victorem perculit’ is like 9. 571 foll., “sternit . . . . . . Ortygium Caeneus, victorem Caenea Turnus.” About the pointing and sense of the words that follow there have been many opinions. With much hesitation I have followed Peerlkamp in adopting Wakefield's punctuation, which connects ‘inmani corpore’ with ‘se ferebat,’ “he stalked along with giant bulk, coming as he did to Troy, one of the Bebrycian house of Amycus.” ‘Inmani corpore’ is not needed grammatically, as Wakef. thinks, to qualify ‘se ferebat,’ the sense of which is sufficiently completed by the clause ‘Bebrycia gente,’ as Wagn. and Forb. contend: but other passages in Virg. are strongly for connecting ‘se ferebat’ with ‘inmani corpore.’ Comp. “illius atros Ore vomens ignis magna se mole ferebat” 8. 198, an almost exact parallel, “ingentem sese clamore ferebat” 9. 597, and such passages as v. 368 just above, “vastis cum viribus effert ora,” “vasta se mole moventem” 3. 656. Heyne's pointing, which separates ‘se ferebat’ both from ‘inmani corpore’ and from ‘veniens,’ &c., is contrary to the usage of Virg., who never uses ‘se ferre’ without something to qualify and complete it, except where it is connected with words expressing the direction of the motion, as in 2. 672., 6. 241., 7. 492; and Jahn's (ed. 1), ‘qui se ferebat (=“iactabat”) Amyci de gente, Bebrycia veniens,’ introduces a sense of ‘se ferre’ unknown to Virg., though justifiable in itself. ‘Veniens,’ coming to Troy to take part in the games, not =“ortus,” a sense of the word which, as Wagn. says, is only found in the case of plants. ‘Veniens de gente’ however are not to be connected, as if it were “veniens ex gente,” though we have “Venerat antiquis Corythi de finibus Acron” 10. 719. Both the use of ‘de gente’ elsewhere in Virg., and the requirements of the present passage oblige us to take ‘de gente’ here not ‘from the nation’ but ‘of the family,’ so that it is to be constructed as if it were “veniens vir de gente” or “unus de gente.” Comp. 7. 750 with ib. 803. It is more to the point to say that the pugilist was a descendant of the mythic champion Amycus, whom Pollux conquered and killed, than that he was merely one of the same nation. ‘Bebrycia,’ a poetical variety for ‘Bebrycii,’ as Amycus was king of the Bebryces: comp. 6. 2., 7. 207, 209.— This description of the champion, as Heyne remarks, is modelled on Il. 23. 679, where Euryalus, the less fortunate candidate, is characterized as having come to Thebes to the funeral of Oedipus, and having there conquered all the natives.

[374] Rom. has ‘percutit.’ ‘Fulva’ seems a frigid epithet, like “aurea sidera” 2. 483. If we could suppose the mention of Dares' exploits to have been actually made by the spectators, the epithet might pass as one of those details which sometimes associate themselves in the memory with more important events, and so might have a psychological truth. Such a thing however is not likely to have occurred to Virg., whose style of art is different: so we must put down the use of the epithet to an unseasonable imitation of Homeric simplicity. More might have been said for it had it occurred in the course of the ordinary narrative, as there many details may bear to be enumerated, whereas in a brief recollection like this only the more important points can properly be noticed. In 9. 589 however, where the words are partially repeated, the epithet is exchanged for a less prominent, though not less expressive one, “multa porrectum extendit arena.” Ov. M. 10. 716 (quoted by Forb.) has “fulva moribundum stravit arena,” of the death of Adonis, where there is some force in the epithet, as used by a lively colourist, suggesting as it does a contrast with the white flesh and the red blood. ‘Extendere’ like ἐκτείνειν Eur. Med. 585, of laying low.

[375] Talis, with such powers and the consciousness of such exploits. ‘Prima in proelia,’ for the beginning of the fray. Dares puts himself into a combative attitude, though he has no antagonist. So 12. 193, “Mugitus veluti cum prima in proelia taurus Terrificos ciet.” Comp. also G. 4. 314.

[376] The homoeoteleuton ‘humeros latos,’ as Wagn. remarks, is forcible here. So 2. 721.

[377] Wagn. remarks that ‘proludens’ would be a plausible but unnecessary conjecture. “Calcibus auras verberat” 10. 892. St. Paul's οὕτω πυκτεύω, ὡς οὐκ ἀέρα δέρων, 1 Cor. 9. 26 (alluded to by Germ.), will occur to many readers. Comp. also G. 3. 233 note.

[378] Quaeritur, is sought, implying that the search still goes on. ‘Alius,’ about which a question has been raised, need merely mean other than Dares, the game being one which required two to play at it. Possibly however it may have the sense of “alter,” as it seems to have in 8. 399, so as to mean ‘a match.’

[379] Adire of confronting in conflict. “Quando ipsum horrebat adire” 11. 636.

[380] Alacris: Madv. § 59. 2. obs. 1. The old reading, before Pier. and Heins., was ‘pugna,’ which Wagn. supposes to have arisen from “excedere pugna” 9. 789. The parallel at any rate may show us that the construction here is ‘thinking that all were retiring from the prize,’ not as Heyne offers as an alternative, ‘thinking himself to surpass all in respect of the prize.’

[382] Tum after ‘moratus’ like ‘deinde’ after ‘fatus’ 2. 391. So εἶτα after participles in Greek. Aeneas had the bull standing before him. In Il. 23. 666 Epeus instantly on rising seizes on the mule, which he declares to be his prize, whoever may be his competitor. ‘Laevo’ Pal., Gud. a m. p.

[384] For ‘quae’ three MSS. have ‘qui,’ three others ‘quis.’ See on v. 327.

[385] Ducere dona, like δῶρον ἄγεσθαι, Theocr. 1. 11, of taking to one's self (comp. Il. 23. 263, Od. 10. 35, 36), not unlike ‘ferre.’ There may be a further reference here to leading away the bull, as in v. 534 below, “ducere honorem” to drawing a lot for a prize. “Cuncti simul ore fremebant Dardanidae” 1. 559 note.

[387-423] ‘Acestes exhorts Entellus, an old Sicilian champion, to enter the lists. He demurs on account of his age, but eventually assents, and produces a terrible pair of gloves with nails of iron, in which he had been used to fight. Dares declines to meet an adversary so armed, and Entellus consents to have the combat equalized.’

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