Imitated from Od. 18. 66 foll., where Ulysses strips to fight with Irus. ‘Duplicem amictum,’ the δίπλαξ or διπλῆ of Hom. See Dict. A. ‘Pallium,’ where a distinction is made between this and the διπλοΐς (“duplex pannus” Hor. 1 Ep. 17. 25) of the Cynics. Virg. was thinking of the combat of Amycus and Pollux, Apoll. R. 2, where it is said of the former (v. 32) “ὃ δ᾽ ἐρεμνὸν δίπτυχα λώπην . . . Κάββαλε”.
 Artus are probably the joints, ἄρθρα (see Forc.), so there is nothing strange in their being distinguished from ‘membra.’ Macr. Sat. 6. 1 tells us that the rest of the verse is from Lucilius (17. fr. 7 Gerlach) “magna ossa lacertique Adparent homini.” Virg. was prudent in borrowing the words, as the effect of the hypermeter is very happy.
[424-472] ‘The fight begins: after some time Entellus overreaches himself and falls: but he rises with renewed vigour and completely beats Dares, who is taken home battered and bleeding.’
 Satus Anchisa: see on v. 244 above. ‘Pater:’ see on v. 130 above. ‘Extulit,’ perhaps from the ships, or from the place where he was lodged, though we should rather have expected Aeneas to have sent a message for them, as in v. 359. Comp. however 11. 72, “Tum geminas vestes auroque ostroque rigentis Extulit Aeneas,” where the meaning evidently is ‘brought them out of his tent.’ νηῶν δ᾽ ἔκφερ᾽ ἄεθλα is said of Achilles Il. 23. 259. But the word need merely mean that Aeneas lifted them from the ground where they had been placed before him. In Apoll. R. 2. 51 foll. Amycus scornfully gives Pollux the choice of the gloves that have been set down at their feet; Pollux carelessly takes up those next him.
 In Hom. Il. 23. (v. 684) and Apoll. R. (vv. 62 foll.) the backer or backers tie on the gloves.
 Hom. v. 686, Apoll. v. 68
 χερσὶν ἐναντία χεῖρας ἔμιξεν Apoll. v. 78: comp. Hom. v. 687. ‘Inmiscentque manus manibus’ is said of the preliminary sparring, which provokes or brings on the encounter, ‘pugnam lacessunt.’ “Lacessere bella” 11. 254.
 Pedum motu: the feet would be of use in helping to elude blows (“motu Spartanus acuto Mille cavet lapsas circum cava tempora mortes Auxilioque pedum,” Stat. Theb. 6. 785 foll., comp. by Heyne), perhaps also in tripping up an adversary (Theocr. 22. 66, comp. by Forb.), though this was forbidden in the Greek games (Dict. A. ‘Pugilatus’), and seems to be distinguished from regular boxing in Theocr. l. c.
 Membris et mole a hendiadys, not unlike “molem et montis” 1. 61, which Serv. comp. ‘Tarda genua’ app. to ‘pedum melior motu.’ In Apoll. v. 94 Pollux shifts his knees before giving the finishing stroke.
 οὐ δ᾽ ἔλληξαν ἐπισταδὸν οὐτάζοντες Apoll. v. 84, which may have led to the use of ‘volnus’ here and in v. 436 of a blow irrespectively of the wound given. ‘Nequiquam’ seemingly means without producing a decided effect, not that the blows were parried, as the next three lines appear intended, as Heyne remarks, to express in detail what is here put generally.
 It is doubtful whether ‘ingeminant’ is neuter here, as in G. 1. 333, ‘multa volnera’ being the subject, or active, as in v. 457 below. The latter is rather more natural; but there is some awkwardness in taking, as we must then take, ‘pectore vastos dant sonitus’ of producing sounds from their adversary's breast. An imitation in Stat. Theb. 1. 418, “Iam crebros ictus ora et cava tempora circum Obnixi ingeminant” is in favour of the active sense. One MS. gives ‘pectora:’ but ‘et’ is against this. Taubm. has a curious notion that ‘pectore dant sonitus’ is said of the deep breath which the striker gives to help his blow. Comp. Cic. Tusc. 2. 23, “Pugiles . . . cum feriunt adversarium in iactandis caestibus ingemiscunt, non quod doleant animove succumbant, sed quia in profundenda voce omne corpus intenditur venitque plaga vehementior.”
 Errat does not express missing of its effect, but brings out the notion of constantly moving to and fro about a place. So exactly Aesch. Cho. 425, πολυπλάνητα δ᾽ ἦν ἰδεῖν Ἐπασσυτεροτριβῆ τὰ χερὸς ὀρέγματα, according to Lachmann's universally received conjecture. ‘Auris:’ the ears, as Cerda remarks, suffered especially in boxing, so that we hear of men τὰ ὦτα κατεαγότες, and of ἀμφωτίδες, ear-covers of brass, which however seem not to have been worn in the public games (Dict. A. ‘Pugilatus’).
 He eludes the blows not by moving his legs, like Dares (v. 430), but by a slight motion of the body aided by constant vigilance. ‘Corpore exire (or ‘effugere’） ictus’ seems to have been a phrase. Taubm. quotes Cic. 1 Cat. 6, “Quot ego tuas petitiones, ita coniectas ut vitari posse non viderentur, parva quadam declinatione et ut aiunt corpore effugi?” ‘Tela’ is a natural extension of the metaphor in ‘volnera,’ referring to the caestus. ‘Oculis vigilantibus,’ because watchfulness would be all the more needed where the combatant did not change his posture. For ‘exit’ comp. 11. 750, “vim viribus exit.” The general notion is that of getting out of the way of a thing, as in Lucr. 5.1330, “transversa feros exibant dentis adactus Iumenta,” whence it comes to be used of evading, and even, as in 11. 750 just quoted, of repelling.
 Entellus is apparently playing a defensive game at this part of the contest, while Dares attacks. The comparison is Virg.'s own. Apoll. has two others, one of a wave threatening to overwhelm a ship which succeeds in avoiding it, vv. 70 foll., another of two men hammering at the same timber, vv. 79 foll. ‘Molibus’ with ‘oppugnat,’ works of offence. Gossrau comp. Livy 2. 17, “refectis vineis aliaque mole belli.” See also 9. 711.
 Sedere, like ‘obsidere,’ is the technical term for a blockade. Here however a siege is obviously meant. ‘Sub armis’ (= ‘armatus,’ v. 585) may possibly be meant to express as much by qualifying the verb. Forb. however quotes from Val. Max. 7. 4, “Ad ultimam ei senectutem apud moenia Contrebiae armato sedendum foret,” where a blockade is evidently intended.
 I incline to refer these two lines to Dares, not to the subjects of the two comparisons, as the omission of the apodosis of the comparison would be awkward here, where there is no complication of clauses to excuse it. Virg. has however chosen to express what Dares does in language proper only to the case of those with whom he has just compared him. The comparison in fact helps us to the metaphor. ‘Pererrat’ seems to belong to ‘aditus’ by a kind of zeugma, as we should have expected ‘temptat’ or ‘explorat.’ With the language comp. 11. 766. Rom. has ‘nunc illos, nunc hos.’
 Entellus now leaves the defensive, and attacks. The circumstance is from Apoll. vv. 90 foll., where Amycus aims a crushing blow at Pollux, who partially avoids it. ‘Ostendit’ seems to mean little more than ‘attollit,’ though there may be, as Serv. thinks, a more or less distinct reference to the slow prepared character of the old man's blow, which has the effect of preparing his adversary. ‘Insurgens:’ comp. v. 425 above, 11. 697., 12. 728 foll., 902.
 The motion here is something more than that intended in v. 438, as ‘elapsus’ shows.
 Viris in ventum effudit is not simply a proverbial expression for wasting his strength, but has a strict propriety here. Dares evaded the blow altogether, which fell with all its force on the air and so caused Entellus to lose his balance. Comp. Catull. 62 (64). 111, “Nequiquam vanis iactantem cornua ventis,” of the Minotaur attempting to wound his enemy but only wounding the air, a passage which Virg. had in his mind, as we shall see on v. 448. ‘Ultro,’ without any impulse from Dares. Forb. explains it ‘not only does he waste his strength, but falls,’ which is not improbable.
 As in v. 118 above, the same thought is enforced twice by a partially verbal repetition. Virg. was perhaps thinking of Lucr. 1.741, “Et graviter magni magno cecidere ibi casu.” We may strengthen the false distinction if we like by connecting ‘ipse’ closely with ‘gravis,’ discriminating the heaviness of the man more sharply from the heaviness of his fall; but ‘ipse’ may be intended to repeat the notion of ‘ultro,’ or, if Forb. be right on the preceding verse, to add to it the notion of spontaneity. For this use of the copula to connect an adjunct which is not a predicate with one that is, comp. 2. 86 note, note on v. 498 below.
 There are several comparisons of falling men to falling trees in Hom., e.g. Il. 13. 178, comp. by Heyne; but Virg. has chiefly followed Catull. 62 (64). 105 foll. ‘Quondam’ 2. 366 note. “‘Cava,’ id est, exesa vetustate: et dicendo ‘cava pinus’ vere respexit ad aetatem,” Serv. Perhaps also there may be a reference to the hollow sound of the fall. ‘Erymantho aut Ida:’ “in summo quatientem bracchia Tauro” Catull.l.c.
 They rise from their seats eagerly and rush to the spot.
 Tardatus may perhaps refer not only to courage but to physical movement, as we hear immediately of Entellus pursuing his antagonist.
 Et vim was read before Heins. “Se suscitat ira” 12. 108, which shows, as does the introduction of ‘ac,’ that ‘ira’ is here abl., not nom. “Spes addita suscitat iras” 10. 263. ‘Vim’ is violence, ‘viris’ strength, so that there is no objection to the repetition. Taubm. quotes a Pythagorean saying, “Ira cos fortitudinis.”
 Tum is taken by Forb. as ‘moreover,’ preparing us for the mention of fresh motives. But I am not sure that the ordinary sense is not the more forcible, ‘tum’ having something of the force of ‘tum demum.’ Ribbeck makes the line parenthetical. Med. a m. p. has ‘tunc:’ see on 4. 408. “Pudor . . . . et conscia virtus” 12. 667, 668.
 Virg. seems to have thought of Apoll. v. 74, “ὣς ὅγε Τυνδαρίδην φοβέων ἕπετ᾽, οὐδέ μιν εἴα Δηθύνειν”, the last clause suggesting ‘Nec mora, nec requies.’ Apoll. however is describing not the end of the fight, but Amycus' first attack. Valerius Flaccus in his version of the same combat (4. 261 foll.) combines the two, making Pollux employ at the end of the encounter with more effect the same impetuosity which Amycus had employed at the beginning. “Aequore toto . . . . agit” 12. 592. Comp. 2. 421, “totaque agitavimus urbe.”
 See on 1. 3. Here as in other places where ‘ille’ may appear pleonastic it has a rhetorical force, fixing attention on the person who is spoken of. ‘Now with the right hand showering blows, now, he, the same man, with his left.’ The force might be given variously in English, ‘now as furiously with his left,’ ‘now, brave man, with his left.’ We feel that that tremendous personality is impressing itself upon Dares. Med. has ‘nunc deinde.’
 “Nec mora, nec requies” 12. 553, G. 3. 110. “Nec mora nec requies inter datur ulla fluendi” Lucr. 4.227. ‘Quam multa’ in a comparison, as in G. 4. 473; the apodosis however here does not correspond, as instead of ‘tam multus’ we have ‘sic,’ which is explained by ‘densis ictibus.’ With the image comp. G. 1. 449, “Tam multa in tectis crepitans salit horrida grando.”
 Versat, hits from side to side, or, as we should say, up and down. See on 6. 571.