Comp. Aeneas' words in prospect of drowning 1. 94 foll., and Andromache's 3. 321 foll. She tells them they were unhappy in having survived the sack of the town, the occasion on which they would have been dragged to death. Three MSS. give ‘Achaia:’ see on 2. 462. ‘Manus,’ band, not hand, like “manus Troiana” 11. 597.
 Traxerit seems to allude to the dragging of women by the hair of the head, which the ancient poets so often mention as one of the features of a siege: comp. 2. 403. ‘Patriae,’ the Troad and Troy being identified, as in 3. 325.
 With this and the next line comp. 1. 755, 756. For the time of year referred to see Introduction to Book 3. ‘Vertitur,’ stronger than ‘volvitur’ (found in one MS.). ‘Summer is becoming winter.’ Comp. “vertitur caelum” 2. 250. With ‘septuma aestas vertitur cum’ comp. Cic. Fam. 15. 14, 1, “Multi anni sunt cum ille in aere meo est,” ‘cum’ being ‘during which time.’
 Freta and ‘terras’ with ‘ferimur’ (comp. the precisely parallel expression 1. 524, “ventis maria omnia vecti”), ‘saxa’ and ‘sidera’ with ‘emensae.’ With this use of ‘tot’ comp. “Tot maria intravi,” 6. 59. ‘Saxa’ are the rocks, which aggravated the difficulties of navigation. So Ilioneus complains 1. 537, “Perque undas, superante salo, perque invia saxa Dispulit.” ‘Inhospita’ 4. 41, like ἄξενος or ἀπόξενος in Greek, as affording no anchorage, referring probably to ‘saxa’ alone, not to ‘sidera.’
 Emensae as applied to ‘sidera’ may have a further reference to observing the stars, like “remetior astra” v. 25, the matrons being said to do what their pilot had to do for them. Comp. Soph. Oed. T. 795, ἄστροις τὸ λοιπὸν ἐκμετρούμενος χθόνα. ‘Sidera’ seems to combine the notions of the stars as the chart for sailing and as the harbingers of weather. For ‘ferimur’ Rom. and another give ‘tulimus,’ several others ‘ferimus.’ ‘Mare magnum’ was at one time taken of the Mediterranean: but the epithet is doubtless quite general. Serv. comp. Lucr. 2.1, “Suave mari magno turbantibus aequora ventis.”
 Above v. 24., 1. 570.
 Quis is restored by Wagn. from Med. a m. sec. (‘qui’ a m. pr.), Pal. &c., for ‘quid’ (Rom.). It is little better than refining to attempt to decide between them on intrinsic grounds. “Aut metus Ausonia prohibet consistere terra,” 6.807, is slightly for ‘quid:’ “Non dabitur regnis, esto, prohibere Latinis,” 7. 313, slightly for ‘quis,’ suggesting the notion of an interference by a higher power, though the context here will be quite satisfied by understanding it of human interference. ‘Iacere muros’ like “iacere fundamenta.” Forb. comp. Prop. 2. 26. 64 (speaking of the subject of the Aeneid), “Iactaque Lavinis moenia litoribus.” ‘Dare civibus urbem:’ there was a nation, but its natural correlative, a city to inhabit, was wanting.
 Nulla iam: see Hand, Turs. 3. 130 foll. The ‘force’ of ‘iam’ seems to be ‘is there no longer any hope that.’ Comp. 4. 431 note. ‘Dicentur’ is interpreted by Gossrau of the formal giving of the name Troy to the new city; by Forb. of the repetition of the name in after times, in other words, of its fame. Both notions may well be included. The general thought is, shall the name Troy never be revived? are we never to hear it pronounced again of an existing city?
 Comp. 3. 350. Xanthus and Simois occur again in a similar connexion 10. 60. “‘Hectoreos’ exquisitius quam Troianos.” Heyne.
 Rom. and others have “Iam tempus agit res,” which seems to be confirmed by Stat. Theb. 5. 143, “dum tempus agit rem Consulite” (from the context evidently an imitation of this passage), though there Heins. would read ‘agi.’ ‘Agi’ is clearly right, the sense being the same as if the words had been “iam tempus agere res,” while the inf. might easily have been altered by some one who did not understand the construction.
 ‘Prodigies so great admit of no delay: they must be followed at once by action.’ Comp. below v. 749, “Haud mora consiliis;” 3. 473, “fieret vento mora ne qua ferenti.” “En quattuor aras” E. 5. 65. Altars may have been raised to Neptune to offer sacrifice for a prosperous voyage, as Heyne suggests, that being not improbably part of the order of the day (see above v. 59 note). Serv. mentions an opinion that they had been raised by Cloanthus in fulfilment of his vow. His own view is that each of the ship-captains raised one, which would at any rate account for the number, a thing not easy to explain otherwise, unless we suppose Virg. to have simply repeated his own words in the Eclogues.
 Deus ipse is explained by Wagn. Q. V. 18. 6, “Non humanum est sed divinum consilium.” ‘It is the god himself, no less, who ministers to us torches and the spirit to use them.’ Comp. 1. 150, “furor arma ministrat.” Rom. has ‘animam,’ which Ribbeck adopts, comparing 8. 403.
[641-663] ‘She flings the first torch herself. Her deity is recognized by one of the matrons. They stand in doubt. Vanishing, she reveals herself. They are seized with fury and fire the ships, which are soon in a blaze.’
 Procul, swung back. ‘Connixa’ above v. 264.
 Pyrgo is not named elsewhere. Serv. says of the speech, “Non est dissuasio, ut quidam putant, sed magis hortatur persuadendo numinis auctoritate.” With ‘tot Priami natorum’ he comp. “spes tanta nepotum” 2. 503. ‘Regia nutrix’ like “regia puppis” 2. 256.
 ‘It is not Beroe you have to do with.’ ‘Rhoeteia’ = ‘Troiana.’ “Rhoeteo litore” 6. 505. Cerda, referring to v. 620, observes not badly, “Observabis, solere Vergilium complere notitiam rerum variis in locis. Supra dedit patriam mariti, nune dat uxoris. Inde emergit plena haec cognitio, videlicet mulier Troiana Beroe nupsit in via Epirensi homini Doryclo.”
 ‘Signs of divine beauty’ seems here to be put for beauty, which is a sign of divinity.
 Probably from Achilles' recognition of Athena Il. 1. 199, αὐτίκα δ᾽ ἔγνω Παλλάδ᾽ Ἀθηναίην: δεινὼ δέ οἱ ὄσσε φάανθεν. ‘Spiritus’ is explained by Serv. from 1. 403, “Ambrosiaeque comae divinum vertice odorem Spiravere:” but it doubtless refers to the fire which she threw into her tone and manner. “L. Caecilium nonne omni ratione placavi? quem hominem! qua ira! quo spiritu!” Cic. ad Q. Fr. 1. 2, 2.
 For ‘qui voltus’ (Med.) Rom., Pal. &c. give ‘quis,’ which Ribbeck adopts and Wagn. at one time adopted. Some again have ‘vocisve,’ which Heyne retains. There is perhaps sufficient reason for ‘que’ followed by ‘vel,’ in the fact that look and tone of voice are more closely connected with each other than either of them with gait; but such considerations are rather microscopic, and one is almost tempted to follow Wakef. in embracing “et gressus” from Pal. and a few other copies, as the word may have been altered to meet a supposed metrical necessity. There is yet another variety of reading in the verse, many inferior MSS. having ‘euntis.’ With ‘voltus, vocisque sonus’ comp. 1. 327, “namque haud tibi voltus Mortalis, nec vox hominem sonat,” with ‘gressus’ ib. 405, “Et vera incessu patuit dea.”
 Inferret: see on 3. 66.
 Malignis is perhaps better represented by ‘malignant’ than by any other word. They were unfriendly to the ships, though at first they were doubtful about treating them as enemies. Gossrau thinks their feeling is excited by seeing the ships burn and the prospect of sailing to Italy destroyed; but the context would not lead us to suppose that Iris' torch had taken so serious an effect.
 Ambiguae active, = ‘ambigentes,’ a sense found in Tac., where it is constructed with a gen., as in “ambiguus inperandi” Ann. 1. 7. ‘Amorem’ and ‘regna’ are of course not quite co-ordinate. Strictly speaking, the two things between which they doubted were either the two countries or their feelings for the two countries respectively. Rom. has ‘terras.’ ‘Miserum amorem,’ as we talk of a wretched passion, meaning that it is unreasonable and overpowering. “Misere amare” is a colloquial phrase found in the comic writers for “perdite amare,” Ter. Andr. 3. 2. 40 &c.
 Whether ‘secuit’ means ‘cut her path along the bow already existing,’ as Henry thinks, or ‘described a bow in her path,’ as Heyne takes it, is a question rather of sense than of language, as in either case ‘secare arcum’ must mean to trace the line of the bow, and so cannot be compared with ‘secare ventos,’ &c., where the accusative denotes the space divided. There is nothing in the context to show whether the bow along which Iris descended (v. 609) was visible, or, like herself, invisible, nor yet whether it remained after she came down. On either supposition there would be enough to show to the Trojan women the supernatural character of the appearance, the main point being that Iris, the goddess, having come down unseen, re-ascended in the most visible and conspicuous manner. ‘Fuga’ v. 586 note.
 Tum vero, as Henry remarks, denotes “the production at last of that full effect which preceding minor causes had failed to produce.” Comp. 9. 73 foll., which is generally parallel to this passage. ‘Actae furore’ 10. 63.
 Focis penetralibus (which occurs Catull. 66 (68). 102) must be referred with Donatus and the commentators generally to the hearths in the ‘penetralia’ of adjoining houses. Some brought embers and brands from the hearths, others boughs from the altars to hurl at the ships, the act of hurling, which is of course meant to be common to both parties, being, with Virg.'s usual preference of variety to perspicuity, predicated only of one. Thus it would be worse than useless to follow Henry in putting ‘pars spoliant aras’ within brackets.
 Frondem may include the boughs that wreathed the altars (2. 249., 3. 25), as well as firewood.
 “Saxa per et scopulos” G. 3. 276. ‘Pictas abiete puppis,’ i. q. “picta abiete puppis,” as “duros obiice postis,” 11. 890, i. q. “dura obiice postis.” Schrader suggested ‘factas’ or ‘textas.’ ‘Pictas’ may refer, as Heyne says, either to the colour of the whole ship (comp. the Homeric μιλτοπάρῃοι) or to the figures of the gods on the stern.
[664-684] ‘The news flies to the circus. Ascanius gallops up and calls to the matrons who fly off and are sobered. But the flame burns on in spite of attempts to extinguish it.’