Tumulus is not the ‘exstructum’ of v. 290. as Forb. thinks, which could not be called ‘Anchisae tumulus,’ but the sepulchral mound of Anchises, as in v. 76. We have seen reason, above v. 329, to believe that the grave was not far from the circus; but Virg. has not given us data enough for picturing to ourselves the locality. ‘Cuneos theatri’ is an extension of the metaphor which we have already had vv. 289, 340. It occurs again 12. 269.
 Perferre of carrying news 11. 825. Eumelus is not known elsewhere: but the name may have been taken from the unsuccessful competitor in Homer's chariot-race.
 For ‘in nimbo’ we might have expected ‘nimbo’ simply, as Heyne remarks: Virg. however as usual consults variety. Perhaps we may comp. 3. 587, “Et Lunam in nimbo nox intempesta tenebat,” where the preposition is omitted by two MSS., and would not have been greatly missed. The ‘nimbus’ here of course is smoke. ‘Respicere’ with inf. seems unusual. The dictionaries cite Plaut. Curc. 1. 2. 68, “Respicio nihili meam vos gratiam facere,” where however another reading is “perspicio.”
 Castra may refer either to the ships or to the settlements of the Trojans near them. Comp. its metaphorical use 3. 519. ‘Magistri’ = ‘custodes.’ Serv. comp. “Abeuntes ambo hinc tum senes me filiis Relinquunt quasi magistrum,” Ter. Phorm. 1. 2. 21. ‘Exanimes,’ breathless with pursuing him. With the picture comp. above v. 256.
 Cives reminds them at once of their relation to him and of the city the hope of which they are destroying. Ascanius supposes that they must fancy in their frenzy that they are burning a Greek camp or fleet, as Agave fancied that she was tearing a calf in pieces when she was dismembering her son. But their delusion was of a different kind, as the context shows. Thus it seems out of place to suppose with Forb. that they do not recognize Ascanius, though doubtless he believes that they do not, and takes off his helmet accordingly. ‘Suos mutatae adgnoscunt’ v. 679 need not imply that they were ignorant of the persons of their friends, but that they were ignorant of their true character; that as they now recognize the ships to be what Ascanius here calls them, their hopes, so they see that Aeneas and those who were for continuing the voyage had their true interests at heart. If this seems forced, we must say not that they were not perfectly aware that they were burning their own ships, but that in their frenzied enthusiasm they thought only of their purpose, and were unconscious of the whole world beside.
 Inanem galeam simply means his empty helmet, as in G. 1. 496, the epithet here as there being perhaps intended to make us think of the sound as it strikes the ground, though it may also be meant to give the picture. To understand it of a helmet for show, not for use, with Forb. and Henry (who however says nothing about it in his published commentary), is to put a forced sense upon a plain word. “Tigrin inanem,” used of a tiger's skin Stat. Theb. 6. 715, means not so much that the skin is sham and void of meaning or terror, though that doubtless enters into it, as that it is actually empty of the savage beast that filled it.