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[719] The later editors rightly follow Gliemann's suggestion that the period formerly placed after ‘amici’ should be changed to a comma, ‘tum vero’ being sometimes found after a participial clause, as Sall. Cat. 61,Confecto proelio, tum vero cerneres”; Livy 2. 29 “quo repulso, tum vero,” &c. So it is used in an apodosis 7. 376., 11. 633. ‘Incensus’ is used of other excitements than those of anger and love, 4. 360.

[720] The MSS. are divided between ‘animo’ (Rom., Pal., Med.), and ‘animum’ (Serv., Probus, Gud. a m. s. &c.). ‘Animus’ was the reading before Heins., who introduced ‘animum.’ We might also have expected ‘animi’ (see on 2. 120); but it does not seem to be found. The ‘usus loquendi’ of Virg. is perhaps rather in favour of ‘animum’ (comp. “animum arrecti” 1. 579, “animum labefactus” 4. 395, with “animum dividit” 4. 285, “animum versabat” 4. 630): ‘animo’ however is supported by “animo exterrita” 8. 370, by the combination of Rom., Pal., and Med., and by its being less obvious than the acc., so that I have on the whole been led to adopt it, with Jahn, Wagn. (ed. mi.), Ladewig, and Ribbeck. Rom., Gud. corrected, &c. have ‘deducitur.’ With the image comp. 4. 285. The cares are here represented as the parts into which Aeneas' being is torn.

[721] Wagn. seems right in connecting this line rather with what follows than with what precedes, the meaning being, as he says, ‘when night came, then appeared a vision.’ Comp. 10. 256, where he has similarly changed the pointing. ‘Et’ however does point to what precedes, indicating that Aeneas was still occupied with these thoughts when he retired to rest.

[722] Facies = ‘species’ or ‘imago,’ as in 2. 622. ‘Caelo delapsa’ is explained by Heyne as said “ad sensum nostrum, de rebus quae subito apparent: nam ipse Anchises in Elysio degit” vv. 733, 734. But it appears from 6. 687 foll. that the shade of Anchises in Elysium was unconscious of the effect produced by these visions (comp. 4. 353), so that we need not suppose that this appearance is identical with the Anchises of the lower world. Serv. gives an alternative, “aut secundum quod supra diximus, quia animae caelum tenent, simulacra vero apud inferos sunt: aut certe intelligamus a Iove missam potestatem aliquam quae se in Anchisae converteret voltum.” The first view would be countenanced by some passages in Homer, but does not seem to have been held by Virg.: the second is simple and probable enough, this appearance being really a dream, such as Zeus is said to send Il. 1. 63., 2. 6 foll. Comp. the appearances Od. 4. 796., 6. 22.

[723] Subito not with ‘delapsa’ but with ‘effundere,’ as its position shows. The two really come to the same thing, the words being heard at the instant when the appearance is seen.

[724] Doubtless from Catull. 62 (64). 215, “Nate, mihi longa iucundior unice vita.” “Dum vita manebat” 6. 608, 661.

[725] 3. 182.

[726] From Il. 2. 26, Διὸς δέ τοι ἄγγελός εἰμι, Ὅς σευ, ἄνευθεν ἐών, μέγα κήδεται ἠδ᾽ ἐλεαίρει. ‘Classibus’ dat.: see Forc., and comp. E. 7. 47 note. “Ratibus quis depulit ignis?” 9. 78: comp. ib. 109.

[727] Tandem, in your need: the conflagration being already beyond human power. ‘Caelo ab alto’ is sufficiently explained by ἄνευθεν ἐών Hom. l. c.; but there may conceivably be a reference to the character of the aid, rain from heaven.

[728] Pulcherrima seems to be simply transferred from the antecedent to the relative clause, for the sake of the metre or of poetical variety. 3. 546 is scarcely parallel, though the words are sufficiently similar, as there “dederat quae maxuma” seems to mean ‘which he gave as being the greatest,’—‘on which he laid the most stress.’

[729] Lectos and ‘fortissima’ are emphatic: he was to take none but picked and brave men. “Iuvenes, fortissima pectora” 2. 348.

[730] Comp. Numanus' description of his countrymen 9. 603 foll. ‘Aspera cultu’ = “aspero cultu.” Comp. “miserandaque cultu” 3. 591.

[731] Pal. has ‘est Latio,’ which Ribbeck adopts. Helenus had told Aeneas that he would see the Sibyl at Cumae, and learn his destiny from her (3. 441 foll.), but had said nothing about going down to the shades. Assuming that it was necessary to bring him thither, we need not complain of the mode of effecting it here as inartificial: still, it looks almost like an after-thought, as Aeneas in effect learns his destiny not from the Sibyl but from Anchises, and the very words in which her assistance is promised (3. 458, 459) are transferred to what is actually done by Anchises (6. 890—892).

[732] Averna per alta seems to be used generally of the shades (7. 91), perhaps with a special reference not so much to the lake and valley of Avernus as to the whole of the region before they reach Elysium.

[733] Amplexus was found by Pierius in most of his MSS. Some others have ‘complexus.’ But either word would be ill chosen here, being inconsistent with 6. 698 foll. For the position of ‘namque’ see on E. 1. 14.

[734] The MSS. are divided between ‘tristes umbrae’ (Med. a m. pr., Rom., Pal., Gud.), ‘tristesve umbrae’ (Med. a m. sec., and according to Heyne, ‘plures,’ including Balliol MS.), and ‘tristesque umbrae’ (one of Ribbeck's cursives corrected). The first, though adopted by Heins., Heyne, and Rib. beck, is weak. The third might stand very well, as all that is required by the sense is that a distinction should be made between Tartarus and Elysium: but when a reading well supported in itself affords the means of observing Virg.'s own division into Tartarus, Elysium, and the intermediate state, where the sorrows of life are continued after death, it seems a pity not to adopt it. There is no force in Jahn's objection that ‘tristesque’ is required to sustain the balance between ‘Tartara umbraeque’ and ‘piorum concilia Elysiumque,’ as it is a mere assumption that any such balance exists.

[735] Concilia here simply means a meeting, perhaps with an additional notion of a place of meeting. 6. 673 foll. will show that no formal assembly is intended.

[736] Comp. 6. 153, 243 foll. ‘Sanguine’ abl. instrum. ‘Multo’ implies that the sacrifice is to be large, as is the case 6. 243 foll.

[737] The first part of the promise is fulfilled at length 6. 756 foll.; the second is perhaps meant to be included in the general words of 6. 890 foll. ‘Dentur moenia’ 3. 85, 255 notes.

[738] Night is just at its full, and the first faint breath of morning is making itself felt.

[739] Comp. G. 1. 250 note. ‘Saevus,’ as excluding Anchises from the upper air, and breaking in on the intercourse of father and son. The belief in the exclusive connexion between ghosts and night is natural enough. An English reader need hardly be referred to the Ghost in Hamlet. Gossrau has quoted his words from Tieck's translation, “ich wittre Morgenluft.”

[740] Comp. G. 4. 499, 500. Pal. has ‘ad auras.

[741] Serv. says “Ordo est, Aeneas deinde, Quo ruis?” an inversion which here at any rate is of course quite impossible. The words seem to answer exactly to our ‘Whither are you hurrying now?’ conveying a reproach for not remaining longer. ‘ProripisE. 3. 19, where the full reflexive form is used.

[742] “Quem fugis?” 6. 466, E. 2. 60. Comp. Aeneas' words 6. 698.

[743] Aeneas offers sacrifices after supernatural appearances 3. 176 foll., 8. 542 foll. The latter passage (where see note) is closely parallel to this. The words ‘cinerem et sopitos suscitat ignis’ recur 8. 410 in a simile. They must be explained here from the next line, as Aeneas is in his own house, and so would only have household deities about him: otherwise we might have supposed that he revived the sacrificial fire, which had doubtless been burning for his father the day before.

[744] ‘Pergameumque Larem,’ is probably the same as “Assaraci Larem,” mentioned by Ascanius along with the Penates, and Vesta 9. 259, where “canae penetralia Vestae” is repeated. So perhaps 8. 543. ‘Canae’ points to the old religion, of which the worship of Vesta formed part, like “cana Fides et Vesta” 1. 292 note. Serv. gives an alternative, “aut antiquae, aut propter ignisfavillas.” The last notion shows ingenuity, but is hardly likely to have occurred to Virg., even with his love for combining allusions, though it might have suited the less chastened taste of Ovid.

[745] “Farre pio” Hor. 3. Od. 23. 20, where as here offerings to the Penates are spoken of. Comp. ib. 9 where the Lares are propitiated “ture” (Virgil's ‘acerra’) “et horna fruge” (the ‘far pium’) “avidaque porca.

[746-761] ‘He tells the vision to his comrades and Acestes, and they agree to act on it. The ships are repaired—the new city begun, and honours paid to Venus and Anchises.’

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