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[477] Serv. says “‘Datumautem dixit aut ratione fati concessum, aut oblatum fortuito, quod τυχόν dicunt; an iniunctum?” The first is maintained by Henry, the second by Heyne, but the third seems nearest to the truth, ‘datum a Sibylla’ = ‘dictum,’ ‘monstratum.’ Not unlike is “cursusque dabit venerata secundos” 3. 460, also said of the Sibyl. Comp. also note on 3. 85, and the use of ‘daE. 1. 19. ‘Molitur’ expressing difficulty G. 1. 329, note. “Viam molita” 10. 477. “Iamque arva tenebant” 2. 209. Pal. and some others have ‘tenebat,’ but there is an obvious reason for the pl., which shows that Aeneas has rejoined the Sibyl.

[478] Ultima, the last part of the region occupied by those who are neither in Tartarus nor in Elysium, as is explained by vv. 540 foll. Virg. has not expressed himself as clearly as he might have done about this whole region, but there seems no doubt of his meaning. ‘Secreta,’ set apart for them, virtually = “secreti frequentant.” So “secretosque pios” 8. 670.

[479] He sees the heroes of the Theban war, the great event of the heroic ages before the war at Troy.

[480] There seems no special point in this description of Adrastus, which would apply to any spectre. The distinguishing feature in his history was that he was the only survivor of the Seven against Thebes.

[481] Multum fleti seems a translation of πολύκλαυτοι, as Germ. remarks. ‘Ad superos,’ not, as Serv. and others think, i.q. “apud superos” (an interpretation however supported by Sil. 13. 607, quoted by Ladewig, “non digna nec aequa Ad superos passi Manes”), but implying that the wail was raised to the skies. Comp. v. 561, “quis tantus plangor ad auras?” Il. 8. 364, ἤτοι μὲν κλαίεσκε πρὸς οὐρανόν. We are doubtless intended to contrast the scene in the upper world, mourners raising their voices to heaven, with the powerless ineffectual state of the dead. ‘Caducus,’ liable or likely to fall, is here used for fallen, to supply the want of a past participle, perhaps on the analogy of πτώσιμος. Heyne supposes Virg. to be the author of the usage. Ἄνδρες Ἀρηΐφατοι Od. 11. 41.

[482] Longo ordine means little more than “ingenti multitudine,” as Serv. remarks, comparing 2. 766.

[483] Γλαῦκόν τε Μέδοντά τε Θερσίλοχόν τε, Il. 17. 216.

[484] From Il. 11. 59, where the names of Antenor's three sons are given, Τρεῖς δ᾽ Ἀντηνορίδας, Πόλυβον καὶ Ἀγήνορα δῖον, Ἠΐθεόν τ᾽ Ἀκάμαντ᾽, ἐπιείκελον ἀθανάτοισιν. The name ‘Polyphoeten’ is variously given in the MSS., Med. e. g. having ‘Polyboeten,’ but the right spelling appears from Il. 13. 791, καὶ ἀντίθεον Πολυφοίτην, where however another reading is Πολυφήτην, so that perhaps we ought to read ‘Polypheten’ here. In this as in the two last passages quoted, the persons named appear as the most distinguished of the Trojans. ‘Cereri sacrum,’ consecrated to the service of Ceres, perhaps her priest, though the two things are distinguished, 11. 768, “sacer Cybelae Chloreus olimque sacerdos.” Nothing is said of this in Hom., with whom indeed, as Mr. Gladstone remarks (vol. iii. p. 185), priests do not take part in battle, though their sons do.

[485] Idaeus is mentioned repeatedly in Hom. as Priam's herald and charioteer, Il. 3. 248., 24. 325. ‘Arma tenentem’ shows that Virg. intended him to act as armour-bearer also, like Automedon 2. 476. ‘Etiam’ like “etiamque tremensG. 3. 189.

[486] Emm. wished to remove the stop after ‘tenentem,’ so as to construct this line with the last, thinking perhaps of such passages as Od. 11. 388: but he is clearly wrong. Pal. has ‘frementes.

[488] Conferre gradum, to walk by his side. Forc. cites Plaut. Merc. 5. 2. 41,Contra pariter fer gradum et confer pedem.” “Veniendi poscere causas” 1. 414, where some MSS. have “discere,” as Rom. and others have “poscere” here. So Deiphobus questions Aeneas vv. 531 foll., as Ulysses is questioned by his mother and by Achilles, Od. 11. 155 foll., 475 foll.

[490] It matters little whether ‘per umbras’ is taken with ‘fulgentia’ or with ‘videre.’ Heyne justly remarks on the beauty of this whole passage, which he thinks may have been suggested by Heracles terrifying the shades with his bow Od. 11. 605 foll. On its propriety, viewed in relation to the appearance of Aeneas in the Iliad, I have remarked in the Introduction to the Aeneid, p. 8, above.

[492] Heyne refers to Il. 8. 75 foll., 15. 320 foll., where the Greeks fly, driven back however in the one case by Zeus, in the other by Apollo. Virg. may have thought of his own description 2. 399 foll.

[493] Exiguam is the shrill piping voice which Hom. attributes to the dead, Il. 23. 101, Od. 24. 5 foll. Peerlkamp rightly remarks that this portion of the shades is not terrified but menacing, and endeavours to raise the war-cry, βοή, ‘clamour.’ “The war-cry they essay mocks their straining throats:” they open their mouths wide, but in vain, for they produce no volume of sound.

[494-508] ‘Among the dead heroes is seen Deiphobus, cruelly mangled. Aeneas inquires the cause of his suffering, adding that as his body had not been found after the sack of Troy, a cenotaph had been erected for him.’

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