previous next

[703] Reducta, retired, like “sinus reductos” 1. 161.

[704] Rom. reads “reclusum.” For ‘silvis’ Pal., Rom., the first reading of Med. and others have ‘silvae.’ Gud. has both. ‘Silvis,’ which is found in fragm. Vat., and is the second reading of Med., is confirmed by 3. 442, “Averna sonantia silvis,” and by 12. 522, “virgulta sonantia lauro,” though Wagn., who wishes to read ‘silva,’ thinks ‘silvis’ was introduced from the former passage. In more ordinary Latin we should have had ‘virgulta sonantia silvarum,’ or ‘silvas sonantibus virgultis;’ but Virg., for variety's sake, makes the brakes rustle with the woods, of which they form a part. The rustling is caused by the wind, though we need not quote Od. 4. 567 foll. to prove that there are gales even in Elysium.

[705] ‘Praenato’ may be compared with “praefluo,” which has the force of “praeterfluo,” as in Hor. 4 Od. 3. 10, “quae Tibur aquae fertile praefluunt.” “Natare” had been previously used of water by Ennius and Lucr., the former of whom is quoted by Serv. as talking of “fluctusque natantes” (A. fr. inc. 119), while the latter has “campi natantes” more than once, 5. 488., 6. 267, 1142, an expression borrowed, probably in the same sense, by Virg. himself G. 3. 198: see note there. Lethe is unknown to Hom. Plato, Rep. p. 621 A, makes the spirits pass through a sultry plain called Λήθης πεδίον, after which they drink of the river of Indifference, Ἀμέλητα ποταμόν: lower down however he speaks of τὸν τῆς Λήθης ποταμόν.

[706] Strictly speaking, ‘gentes’ is more extensive than ‘populi:’ comp. 10. 202, G. 4. 4, 5. Kritz on Sall. Cat. 10. § 1 makes ‘populus’ denote those under one government, ‘gens,’ those of the same language and origin: but he admits that they are frequently used loosely, “abundantiae caussa ut synonyma cumulari.

[707] In this simile Virg. has translated

ὡς δ᾽ ὅτε λείρια καλὰ περιβρομέουσι μέλισσαι
πέτρης ἐκχύμεναι συμβληίδος, ἀμφὶ δὲ λειμὼν
ἑρσήεις γάνυται, ταὶ δὲ γλυκὺν ἄλλοτε ἄλλον
καρπὸν ἀμέργουσιν πεποτημέναι,

Apoll. himself having closely followed the well-known Homeric simile Il. 2. 87 foll., the first occurring in the Iliad. ‘Ac velut’ is ‘even as,’ as in 4. 402 &c. ‘In pratis’ follows, to give the general scene of the simile, as in 1. 148 (note), 12. 908. ‘Strepit—campus,’ v. 709, sums up the effect of the description. See on G. 3. 196, where some general remarks are made on the structure of Virg.'s similes. Here as in 4. 402 Wagn. restores ‘velut’ (Pal., Rom., Gud.) for ‘veluti’ (Med., fragm. Vat.). “Apes aestate nova” 1. 430 (comp. the passage generally). So the bees are said “nare per aestatem liquidamG. 4. 59.

[709] There is a buzzing among the shades as among the bees (“turbamque sonantem” v. 753), probably the ordinary buzz of a crowd, not specially the ghostly τρισμός or “vox exigua” of v. 493.

[710] Subito adj. with ‘visu.’ It explains ‘horrescit,’ Aeneas being startled by the suddenness.

[711] Wagn. thinks ‘ea’ is used rather than ‘haec’ because Aeneas is more anxious to know the general character of the river than its name (see on 3. 393). It seems simpler to say that ‘ea’ is used for ‘illa,’ which in the oratio obliqua would answer to ‘haec’ in the oratio recta. ‘Porro’ seems to have its local sense of ‘procul,’ like πόρ᾽ῥω, for which Forc. quotes Plaut. Rud. 4. 3. 95,Ubi tu hic habitas? Porro illic longe usque in campis ultimis.” It is more commonly found of motion onwards, which may be its meaning here, as Heyne explains it, “longo inde cursu praetexentia campum.” Otherwise it might be taken in its most ordinary sense, Aeneas asking further about Lethe, after having asked generally the causes of what he saw.

[712] ‘Conplerint’ is supported by fragm. Vat. and Med., as against ‘conplerunt’ or ‘conplerent,’ neither of which the language would admit.

[713] Fato debentur: see on v. 67 above. Here ‘fato’ is of course abl.

[714] “Ad fluminis undam” 3. 381., 10. 833. Here as there ‘ad’ is local. They are said to drink oblivion at the wave, as a variety for drinking the wave of oblivion. Thus we have the ἓν διὰ δυοῖν, ‘latices et oblivia,’ as ‘potare latices ad undam’ would be awkward.

[715] Securos latices is a translation of τὸν Ἀμέλητα ποταμόν: see on v. 705 above, v. 748 below.

[716] ‘Has:’ Anchises expresses himself as if he were referring to the whole multitude of shades, whereas really he is only thinking of his own Italian posterity, as the context shows.

[717] Iampridem goes with ‘cupio,’ so that there is no reason for pointing it with the preceding line, though in sense both ‘iampridem’ and ‘cupio’ belong to it as well as to the present line. The asyndeton, which at first seems awkward, is probably to be accounted for by the repetition of ‘hanc’ after ‘has:’ see on E. 4. 6. Ribbeck thinks Virg. intended to omit v. 716, which was a first draught.

[718] For ‘laetere’ Med. a m. pr., Rom., fragm. Vat. a m. s., and others give ‘laetare,’ which can only be regarded as an error. Rom. further reads “Italiam repertam,” a plausible variant, which was perhaps the original reading of fragm. Vat. We have had the very same variety in 4. 692. ‘Reperire’ answers to ‘quaerere,’ which has been applied to Aeneas' search for Italy 1. 380. For ‘mecum’ the old reading was ‘tandem,’ for which no MS. authority is cited.

[719] Putandum est may remind us of Lucr. 2.39, “Quod superest, animo quoque nil prodesse putandum,” and other passages. Aeneas has slipped as it were into the tone appropriate to the pupil of a philosopher. Fragm. Vat. omits ‘est.’ ‘Ad caelum’ to the upper air of life, as in v. 896 below. Serv. remarks on the omission of any formal indication of an address, “Nova brevitas. Nam dicendopaterqui loquatur ostenditur.

[720] Sublimis apparently with ‘ire,’ like “sublimis abit” 1. 415. It would seem to be more forcible if we could take it of the nature of the soul, that which ought to make it delight in an exalted life, as opposed to the life enjoyed in connexion with ‘tarda corpora:’ and this might perhaps be supported by v. 733, where it is said that so long as they are imprisoned in the body they do not look up to heaven. But the presence of ‘ad caelum’ in the context would make this awkward here. ‘Ad’ is restored by Wagn. from fragm. Vat., Med., and most MSS. for ‘in,’ which is the unquestioned reading in v. 751. To attempt to distinguish between them, as Wagn. does, seems mere refinement. ‘Tarda corpora:’ comp. v. 731.

[721] “Tam dira cupido” v. 373 note. ‘Lucis cupido’ like “lucis contemptor” 9. 205.

[722] Germ. comp. Lucr. 6.245, “Expediam, neque te in promissis plura morabor.” Comp. also G. 2. 46.

[723] Suscipit, ὑπολαβὼν ἔφη. Forc. quotes from Varro R. R. 1. 2, “Suscipit Stolo: Tu, inquit, invides” &c. Med., Pal., the second reading of fragm. Vat., and others have ‘suspicit:’ but ‘suscipit’ (Rom., fragm. Vat. originally, &c.) is supported by Priscian 1212 P, who explains it “respondit ad interrogationem Aeneae,” and cites Plato, Protag. p. 320 c, πολλοὶ οὖν αὐτῷ ὑπέλαβον τῶν παρακαθημένων, ὁποτέρως βούλοιτο οὕτω ἐπεξιέναι (διεξιέναι). ‘Ordine pandit’ 3. 179.

[724-751] ‘Anchises explains that every thing in nature is pervaded by one great spirit, that this in men is clogged by the body, and consequently that after death there has to be a longer or shorter purification, after which the souls are sent back into the world to animate other bodies.’

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Places (automatically extracted)

View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document.

Download Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: