‘Cymaea’ E. 4. 4 note.
 Ambages is applied by Ov. M. 7. 761 to the riddle of the Sphinx, and is more than once used by Tac. in speaking of oracles: see Forc. ‘Remugit’ is explained by ‘antro,’ the cave echoing the scarcely human sounds (comp. 3. 92, where the ‘cortina’ is said ‘mugire’) which the Sibyl utters.
 ‘Wrapping truth in mystery.’ Cerda comp. Eur. Or. 891, καλοῖς κακοὺς Λόγους ἑλίσσων, which Virg. may have had in his mind, though the reading there is not certain, Valckenaer conjecturing καλῶς, which Porson adopts. ‘Ea’ has the force of ‘adeo:’ see on E. 1. 54. The reference is not, as Wagn. thinks, specially to ‘obscuris vera involvens,’ but generally to the whole description of the Sibyl's ecstasy, which is ascribed to the agency of Apollo.
 ‘Shakes the reins so as to make her feel the bit (comp. Eur. Iph A. 151, σεῖε χαλινούς), and plies the goad.’ We need not supply ‘eos’ to ‘stimulos,’ as in cases like this the construction of the second clause is not always formally assimilated to that of the first. See on G. 2. 208. “Stimulos sub pectore vertit” 9. 718. ‘Vertit’ need merely indicate the direction of the goad to the part wounded: but it may also imply the continual change of direction, the weapon being turned hither and thither. The whole description is simply one of prophetic excitement. Apollo tames her and breaks her in (v. 79), but he also lashes her to fury.
 Aeneas' meaning appears to be not, as Heyne explains it, that he has heard what is to happen to him from his father or Helenus, but that he has prepared himself for every possible form of danger by his own reflections, so that the passage is strictly parallel to Ter. Phorm. 2. 1. 11 foll., quoted by Cerda (see Mr. Parry's note), and to Eur. Thes. fr. 392 Nauck, referred to by Cic. Tusc. 3. 14, along with the passage from Ter.
 Quando hic dicitur = “quando hic est quae dicitur.” Comp. Soph. Trach. 638, ἔνθ᾽ Ἑλλάνων ἀγοραὶ Πυλάτιδες καλέονται (καλεῦνται Herm., κλέονται Musgrave). ‘Refuso’ must here be taken in the sense of overflowing, as it was the overflow of the river that formed the ‘palus Acherusia.’ The river is apparently looked upon as imbibing the water which forms its current and disgorging it when there is too much. It matters little whether ‘Acheronte refuso’ is taken as a descriptive abl. or as abl. abs. Not unlike is 7. 569, “ruptoque ingens Acheronte vorago.”
 Pal., Rom., and Gud. a m. p. have ‘contingam:’ but ‘contingo’ does not seem to be used for ‘contingit mihi.’ There is no difficulty about ‘sacra,’ as the infernal gods had their honours as well as others. So “sacrae portae” v. 573 below.
 Aeneas, in describing to Dido what actually happened, does not dwell on the fire and the enemy (comp. 2. 725 foll., where we hear of alarm rather than of real danger): but we have a similar image when he speaks of his journey from Priam's palace to his own home, 2. 632.
 “Maria omnia vecti” 1. 524, the usual way in which the Trojans speak of their wanderings. ‘Maria’ is connected with ‘ferebat’ by a kind of zeugma. There is however nothing tautologous in ‘pelagi minas’ after ‘maria,’ as the sense is that he sailed on every sea and bore all the dangers of wind and wave.
 Anchises exceeded the destiny of old age by encountering what old men in general do not encounter.
 Pal. a m. p., Rom., and Gud. omit ‘et.’
 Dabat seems to show that the injunction was given more than once, so that we must suppose the reference to be not to Anchises' appearance 5. 731 foll., but to directions given while he was alive. The father might naturally advise his son to consult the Sibyl about the future, as Helenus does 3. 441 foll., quite irrespectively of his own death or life. ‘Natique patrisque’ 4. 605.
 Nec—nequiquam as in G. 1. 96., 4. 38. ‘The promotion you have received from Hecate is no empty honour.’ The Sibyl was priestess of Diana, who is called Hecate in her functions in the world below, 4. 511. note. ‘Lucis’ is explained by vv. 131, 138, 238 &c. below. ‘Avernis’ adj., as in G. 4. 493.
 Si potuit has been variously taken as an unfinished sentence, as a protasis to ‘et mi genus ab Iove summo’ v. 123, and as following ‘natique patrisque miserere’ v. 117. The first explanation is perhaps nearest the truth; but the sentence does not strike us as unfinished, for the appeal which really forms the apodosis is implicitly contained in the context. ‘If others have been able to obtain this favour, why should not I, whose claims are as great?’ The story is of course that told at the end of Georgic 4. Med., Rom., and Gud. a m. p. have ‘accersere:’ see the lexicons.
 Fretus 4. 245 note. Comp. Orph. Arg. 42 (quoted by Heyne) Ταίναρον ἡνίκ᾽ ἔβην σκοτίην ὁδὸν Ἄϊδος εἴσω, Ἡμετέρῃ πίσυνος κιθάρῃ, δἰ ἔρωτ᾽ ἀλόχοιο, doubtless an imitation of the present passage and of G. 4. 467.
 The story was that Pollux was allowed to impart his immortality to Castor and share his brother's mortality in return, the two dying according to one account on alternate days, according to another for alternate periods of six months. In Hom. (Il. 3. 243) both are mortal.
 Ire viam 4. 468. Gell. 10. 16 tells us that Hyginus censured Virg. for introducing Theseus, who was detained in the shades, as we shall see below v. 618. Serv. meets the objection in a good note: “Durum exemplum. Unde nec immoratus est in eo. Dicit autem inferos debere patere pietati, qui patuerunt infanda cupienti:” and Heyne remarks that the point of the appeal lies simply in the fact that Theseus was one of those who were allowed to go down to the shades alive. Theseus and Hercules are referred to below v. 392. It is difficult to say whether ‘magnum’ belongs to ‘Thesea,’ as Wagn. thinks, following the old editors, or to ‘Alciden,’ as Heins. and Heyne take it. There is more point in giving the epithet to the person named last: Hercules, who returned in triumph, seems to deserve it better than Theseus, who was kept below: and the epithet is bestowed on Hercules elsewhere in Virg., 5. 414, “magnum Alciden,” 8. 103, “Amphitryoniadae magno.” On the other hand ‘Thesea magnum’ is supported by “Cissea durum,” which ends a verse similarly 10. 317; and we must remember that in an ancient poet punctuation is regulated rather by the ear than by the eye. On the whole then it seems safest to follow Wagn.
[124-155] ‘The Sibyl tells him in reply that for a living man to go down to the shades and return is difficult, but that it may be done by those who succeed in plucking a golden branch from a tree in the neighbouring forest, to be presented as an offering to Proserpine. Meantime she informs him that one of his comrades is lying unburied, and bids him look to the funeral.’