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[185] The legend of Phaethon with other Greek fables had been localized in Liguria: see Polybius 2. 16 (Heyne, Excursus 1 on Book 7 and ad h. 1.). Comp. Ov. M. 2. 370 (of Cycnus), “nam Ligurum populos et magnas rexerat urbes.” The Ligurians had been among the sturdiest enemies of Rome: hence there may be some force in ‘ductor fortissime bello.

[186] Cinyrae Med. ‘Cinera’ Pal. Rom. has ‘Cumarre,’ and Verona fragm. Gud., and three other of Ribbeck's cursives ‘Cinire,’ ‘Cinere,’ or ‘Cinyre.’ The termination in ‘e’ is apparently supported by Serv. “[Cycne] Cunare: quidam duci nomen datum tradunt a Cunaro monte qui in Piceno” (see Pliny 3. 13. 111). Possibly therefore Ribbeck is right in reading “Cinyre;” but, if the view taken on v. 188 is correct, there would be a reason why the poet should choose a name associated mythologically with unlawful passion. The objection to the elision, ‘Cinyra et,’ derived from Lachmann, is very questionable.

[187] Geminae stant vertice cristae 6. 779 (Taubm.).

[188] This line is the most obscure in Virg., with the possible exception of 4. 436: but its meaning may perhaps be proximately ascertained. The context requires us to understand ‘vestrum’ of Cinyras and Cupavo: and this being granted, ‘crimen amor vestrum’ can hardly refer to anything but the existence of a criminal passion between them. It will be no slight confirmation of this to one acquainted with Virg.'s peculiar manner, that Cupavo is described v. 186 as ‘paucis comitate,’ words which regarded by themselves seem to introduce an unmeaning detail, but which are parallel to what Hom. says of Nireus Il. 2. 675, ἀλλ᾽ ἀλαπαδνὸς ἔην, παῦρος δέ οἱ εἵπετο λαός. Virg. then means to indicate that Cupavo is the Nireus of the anti. Mezentian confederacy. From the word ‘paternae’ it would seem that Cinyras and Cupavo must be brothers, sons of Cycnus. Where the poet has not chosen to be explicit, there must necessarily be some uncertainty: and here the uncertainty is increased by the fact that in what follows Virg. says nothing more of the story of Cinyras and Cupavo, but tells instead the legend of Cycnus, and when he returns from the digression, specifies only one person as son of Cycnus and leader of part of the Italian contingent. The probability is that this person is Cinyras, Cupavo, as the weaker member of the pair, being dropped out of sight . ‘Formaeque insigne paternae’ must form part of the same sentence as ‘crimen amor vestrum,’ but it is not easy to say what the connexion is. Grammatically ‘formae insigne paternae’ may be co-ordinate either with ‘amor’ or with ‘crimen,’ or again the words may contains a separate assertion. In the first case the meaning would be, ‘love and the cognizance of your father's shape are your reproach,’ i. e. you labour under a two-fold reproach, a criminal passion of your own, and one between your father and Phaethon, which is represented by your family cognizance. In the second case Virg. would mean ‘love is your reproach, and love is the cognizance of your father's shape,’ the latter words being a condensed way of saying, love gave rise to the transformation of which you wear the symbol as a cognizance. In the third case ‘formaeque insigne paternae’ would mean ‘and your cognizance is that of your father's shape.’ None of these interpretations can be called really satisfactory: perhaps the truth lies between the first and the second. Some have supposed a corruption in the text; but it would be difficult to point out any word which could be altered except for the worse. It is more likely that there is a reference to some fact which we do not know, or that the nature of the subject led the poet to be intentionally obscure. Serv. seems in some strange way to have taken the line with what follows, as he mentions two interpretations, one applying ‘vestrum’ to Cycnus and Phaethon, the other to Cycnus and Phaethon's sisters. He names also a third, taking ‘vestrum’ of Cycnus (Cinyras?) alone. Of modern interpreters, Sprengel makes ‘Amor’ voc., understanding ‘vestrum’ of Cupid and Venus like “vos o Calliope” 9. 525; Wagn. throws ‘crimen amor vestrum’ into a parenthesis, and takes ‘formaeque insigne paternae’ as epexegetical of ‘olorinae pennae:’ but both these views seem excluded by the natural conditions of the passage. (For a different view of these lines see the additional notes at the end of the volume.)

[189, 190] The stories of Phaethon and Cycnus are told by Ovid in the 2nd book of the Metamorphoses. In E. 6. 62 the sisters of Phaethon are changed into alders. “Silvamque sororibus auctam” is Ovid's grotesque imitation of ‘umbramque sororum’ (M. 2. 372). The latter is quaintly enough put by Serv. side by side with “sinuatque alterna volumina crurum” and “cum primum sulcos aequant sata” as “unum de his quae habet Vergilius inimitabilia et sua propria.

[191] Musa E. 1. 2. “Cava solans aegrum testudine amoremG. 4. 464.

[192] Heyne seems right in making ‘canentem’ agree with ‘senectam,’ and taking ‘duxisse’ as = “induxisse.” Comp. “ducere colorem” of grapes, E. 9. 49 (note), Pers. 5. 40, “artificemque tuo ducit de pollice vultum.” This is better than making ‘canentem’ agree with ‘Cycnum,’ and construing ‘duxisse senectam’ as = “duxisse aetatem.” With ‘canentem molli pluma’ comp. Ovid's imitation (M. 2. 372) “canaeque capillos Dissimulant plumae,” which explains it: πολιόχρως κύκνος Eur. Bacchae 1364. ‘Canit . . . canentem:’ see on 4. 271.

[193] With ‘sidera sequentem’ comp. 12. 892, “opta ardua pennis Astra sequi.” For the use of ‘sequi’ see on 8. 333. ‘Voce sequi’ as in 1. 406., 9. 17.

[194] Aequali Med. originally. ‘Filius’ probably Cinyras: ‘aequalis catervas’ should rather mean ‘the band of his equals in age,’ “iuvenes militari aetate Tyrrheni,” as Peerlkamp rightly gives it, than ‘the bands of his compatriots,’ as Wagn. would take it. Comp. “chorus aequalis DryadumG. 4. 460. Peerlkamp cites Val. F. 6. 497., 7. 181, where “aequalis caterva” is similarly used.

[195, 196] The ship is called by the name of its figure-head: see on v. 166. “Ingens Centaurus” is Sergestus' ship 5. 156. Comp. Prop. 5. 6. 49, “quodque vehunt prorae Centaurica saxa minantes” (Forb.). ‘Saxum undis minatur,’ threatens the waves with a rock. ‘Minari’ with acc. of thing and dat. of person as 11. 348.

[197] “Arduus arma tenens” 8. 299. “Et longa sulcat vada saisa carina” 5. 158. The Centaur is identified with the ship: comp. v. 209 below, “hunc vehit inmanis Triton et caerula concha Exterrens freta” &c.

[198, 199] Ille: see on G. 4. 457. Serv. identifies Ocnus with Bianor E. 9. 60 (note). ‘Mantus’ the Greek gen. of ‘Manto.’ This Manto is identified by Serv. with the daughter of Tiresias: an idea traceable to the general tendency observable in these legends to mingle Greek with Italian associations. Others make Manto the daughter of Hercules. ‘Tusci amnis’ apparently the Tiber, as 8. 473.

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