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[439] Soror alma Iuturna: not mentioned by name till 12. 139 foll. ‘Succurrere,’ the reading before Wagn., is found in one of Ribbeck's cursives and some other copies, including Canon. ‘Succedere’ would probably have been restored earlier but for an error in Heinsius' note about the reading of Med. Wagn. well points out the difference between the two words: “Bene se habetsuccedere,quod revocavi: succurritur enim laboranti: at non laborabat Lausus. . . . Succedit igitur Lauso Turnus, sive in eius locum subit, pro eo cum Pallante dimicaturus. Infra . . . . v. 847 ‘Ut pro me hostili paterer succedere dextrae:’ 11. 826 ‘Succedat pugnae,sc. Turnus in locum interfectae Camillae.

[441] Pugna (the more usual constr.) Rom. and one of Ribbeck's cursives. Heyne thinks ‘pugnae’ is the gen. constr. on the analogy of the gen. with “desino” (Hor. 2 Od. 9. 17), which is hardly likely. ‘Desistere’ with dat. Stat. Theb. 5. 273 “haud unquam iusto mea cura labori Destitit” (Wagn.). Pal. and Rom. have “excedere pugnae” in 9. 789.

[443] Debetur 12. 317, “Turnum debent haec iam mihi sacra.” ‘Cuperem’ &c. I would his father too were here to see: a savage wish, not unsuitable to the ‘violentia’ of Turnus. Serv. well comp. Priam's language to Pyrrhus 2. 535 foll. Comp. the bloodthirsty language of Achilles Il. 18. 122, Νῦν δὲ κλέος ἐσθλὸν ἀροίμην, Καί τινα Τρωιάδων καὶ Δαρδανίδων Βαθυκόλπων, Ἀμφοτέρῃσιν χερσὶ παρειάων ἁπαλάων Δάκρυ ὀμορξαμένην ἀδινὸν στοναχῆσαι ἐφείην. In v. 450 Pallas replies in the words “sorti pater aequus utrique est.

[444] Iusso is supported by Serv. and Macrob. 6. 6. 3, but it appears from Serv.'s note that Probus thought ‘aequore iusso’ a hardly justifiable licence. ‘Iussi’ was the common reading before Pierius (Heyne): ‘iussu’ also seems at one time to have been read: but no MS. is quoted for either it or ‘iussi.’ ‘Aequore iusso,’ like “loca iussa” v. 238 note.

[445, 446] Abscessu = “cum abscessissent:” comp. 8. 215, “discessu mugire boves.” ‘Tum’ is difficult. but appears to be rightly explained by Wagn. Q. V. 27. 7 on the analogy of passages like 5. 382, where it or “deinde” is used after a participle as εἶτα is in Greek. Variations, such as ‘tam,’ ‘tamen,’ are found in the inferior MSS. Bothe rather ingeniously conj. ‘abscessum,’ which would leave ‘tum’ to mean ‘also.’ ‘Cum’ Serv. on 11. 15. ‘Miratur’ Rom., Gud. originally, and another of Ribbeck's cursives: and so Serv. on 11. 15. ‘Stupere in aliquo’ Hor. 1 S. 6. 17.

[447, 448] Comp. 4. 363-4, “Huc illuc volvens oculos, totumque pererrat Luminibus tacitis:” 8. 618, “oculos per singula volvit.” ‘Omnia’ i. e. Turnus' body and arms. ‘Tyranni’ simply = king, as 7. 266, 342: though the word may here be chosen to bring out more clearly his high-handed pride. The line seems a mixture of two expressions: “talibus dietis it contra tyrannum” and “talibus dictis respondet dictis tyranni.

[449, 450] For the thought comp. the fine lines of Ennius (Ann. 383) quoted by Cerda: “Nunc est ille dies, quo gloria maxuma sese Ostentat nobis, seu vivimu', sive morimur.” Pallas could not strictly have gained ‘spolia opima,’ as he was not himself commander-in-chief: but the words were sometimes used loosely of spoils taken from the hostile general, whoever was the taker (see Dict. A. ‘Spolia’). ‘Sorti pater’ &c. ‘my father will be able to bear either extreme of fortune:’ an answer to Turnus' speech v. 443.

[451] Tolle like “aufer” Lucr. 3. 955, Hor. 2 S. 7. 43. ‘Fatus’ without “sic,” “talia,” “hace,” &c., is very unusual.

[452] “Frigidus obstiterit circum praecordia sanguisG. 2. 484 (note) of dulness, not as here of fear: hence perhaps Cerda's extraordinary comment here: “videat lector an Vergilius alluserit ad stupiditatem quandam Areadum.

[453] Ἀφ᾽ ἵππων ἇλτο χαμᾶζε Il. 16. 733 &c. ‘Pedes’ &c. “ne videatur pugnae iniquitate vicisse” Serv.

[454] Atque Med. originally for ‘utque.’ The simile of the lion in this context is suggested by Il. 16. 823 foll., where Hector, who has overpowered Patroclus, is compared to a lion which has overpowered a wild boar: Ὡς δ᾽ ὅτε σῦν ἀκάμαντα λέων ἐβιήσατο χάρμῃ, Ὥτ᾽ ὄρεος κορυφῇσι μέγα φρονέοντε μάχεσθον &c., where ὡς δ᾽ ὅτε parallels ‘utque’ (comp. “ac veluti”). Virg. has placed the comParison at the beginning instead of the end of the combat, and has treated the details accordingly. ‘SpeculaE. 8. 60.

[455] With ‘meditantem in proelia’ comp. Plaut. Stich. 2. 1. 34,Simulque ad cursuram (ad om. Ritschl) meditabor me (me om. Ritschl) ad ludos Olympicos” (Forc.). “Ad pugnam proluditG. 3. 234. Pal., Gud., and two other of Ribbeck's cursives omit ‘in,’ which was restored by Heins. from Med. and Rom., being confirmed by the imitation of Silius 17. 438, “Silarum meditantem in proelia.

[456] Heins. read ‘et’ for ‘est’ as if from Gud.: Ribbeck however merely says that the original reading of Gud. appears to be ‘es.’ ‘Imago,’ the appearance, nearly as in 2. 369 (note).

[457] Ubi contiguum &c. when he thought that Turnus would be within the reach of his spear. ‘Huc’ Rom. for ‘hunc.

[458, 459] Ausum masc., being constructed with ‘viribus inparibus.’ ‘Magnum ad aethera fatur’ like Euripides' γόους τ᾽ ἀφείην αἰθέρ᾽ ἐς μέγαν πατρί (Electr. 59): comp. 11. 556., 9. 24. So Il. 3. 364, Ἀτρείδης δ᾽ ᾤμωξεν, ἰδὼν εἰς ον̀ρανὸν εὐρύν, Ζεῦ πάτερ &c.: see ib. 7. 178.

[460, 461] “Mensae quas advena primas Tunc adiit” v. 516 below. For the fact, 8. 362. “Audacibus adnue coeptisG. 1. 40. From this line to v. 509 is missing in Pal.

[462] Cernant some inferior copies, perhaps supported by the original reading of Med. ‘cerant.’ Heyne thought it “multo suavius altero:” but Wagn. rightly replies that ‘sibi’ requires ‘cernat.’ The wish of Pallas has something of the truculence of that of Turnus above v. 443.

[463] “‘Ferant:sustineant quasi pondus et poenam” Serv.

[464, 465] The language is like that in 4. 448, “magno persentit pectore curas: Mens inmota manet: lacrimae volvuntur inanes:” though the situation is different. ‘Premit,’ crushes or stifles: comp. “obnixus curam sub corde premebat” 4. 332. The scene is of course suggested by the celebrated passage Il. 16. 459 foll., where Zeus weeps tears of blood for his son Sarpedon. Valerius Flaccus (4. 114 foll.) developes Homer and Virg. by putting a long lament into the mouth of Neptune over the fate of his son Amycus. ‘Effudit’ Gud. and another of Ribbeck's cursives.

[467, 468] Stat is fixed: comp. Lucr. 1.563, “et finita simul generatim tempora rebus Stare.” “Inreparabile tempus” G. 3. 284. “Aliorum famam cum sua extendere” Plin. Ep. 5. 8 (Forb.). ‘Extendere’ of time = “propagare.” In 6. 806 the notion seems to be of space: whether we read “virtuteviris,” or “virtutemfactis.” “Fatis” Med. originally.

[469] Hoc virtutis opus following ‘extendere’ like “Sed revocare gradum superasque evadere ad auras, Hoc opus, hic labor est” 6. 128, 9. τὸ μὴ πυθέσθαι, τοῦτό μ᾽ ἀλγύνειεν ἄν Soph. Trach. 458. “Troiae sub moenibus altis” 1. 95., 3. 322.

[470] Πολλοὶ γὰρ περὶ ἄστυ μέγα Πριάμοιο μάχονται Υἱέες ἀθανάτων says Hera to Zeus, Il. 16. 448. “Gnati deum: ut Achilles Thetidis, Memnon Aurorae, Martis Ascalaphus” Serv. ‘Tot’ seems to mean ‘all those many sons.’ ‘Quin’ introducing a climax, as 1. 279 “quin aspera Juno . . . Consilium in melius referet.

[471] Il. 16. 483, μοι ἐγών, ὅτι μοι Σαρπηδόνα, φίλτατον ἀνδρῶν &c. The words are from ib. 521 ἀνὴρ δ᾽ ὥριστος ὄλωλεν, Σαρπηδών, Διὸς υίός. Serv. apparently read ‘et iam’ for ‘etiam,’ and so Heins. The MSS. cannot of course be quoted for either reading as against the other.

[472] With ‘sua Turnum Fata vocant’ comp. v. 438 above: “mox illos sua fata manent.” ‘Metas aevi’ like “metas rerum” 1. 278.

[473] Serv. took ‘reiicit arvis’ as = “reiicit ad arva,” explaining it “respiciendo fecit partem feliciorem,” and so nearly Ruaeus, whom Dryden controverts in the dedication to his ‘Aeneid.’ Cerda rightly explains the sense “avertit oculos,” but wrongly adds, “nulli parti auxilium praebens, omnia permittens fatis,” comp. Il. 13. 3 foll. The meaning evidently is that he will not look on the battle, though he declines to stop it. The averting of the eyes is parallel to the shedding of tears of blood in Hom. “Non pugnam adspicere hanc oculis, non foedera possum” says Juno 12. 151. Virg. has taken the words but not the sense of another passage in Hom., Il. 21. 415, ὣς ἄρα φωνήσασα πάλιν τρέπεν ὄσσε φαεινώ.

[475] Diripit Med., Gud. corrected, and three of Ribbeck's cursives. “Deripit ensem, ne iacto telo inermis esset” Serv. In heroic warfare the sword is always drawn after the spear is thrown (Il. 22. 306 al.). There is no occasion, therefore, with Heyne, to stigmatize this line as otiose.

[476] So in Il. 16. 477, where Patroclus and Sarpedon are fighting, Πατρόκλου δ᾽ ὑπὲρ ὦμον ἀριστερὸν ἤλυθ᾽ ἀκωκὴ Ἔγχεος. ‘Humeri tegmina summa’ seems to the topmost edge of the armour of the shoulder, including shield and thorax: it is not necessary to confine the words to the shield, with Heyne and Wagn., or to the thorax, with Forb. and Gossr. ‘Surgunt' may be meant to indicate Turnus’ stature. Rom. and one of Ribbeck'cursives read ‘prima’ for ‘summa:’ another cursive gives ‘summi.’ Heyne read ‘humeris,’ which is only found in some inferior copies, for ‘humeri.

[477, 478] Est molita Med. ‘Viam,’ v. 422 above. ‘Molita’ indicates the difficulty with which the spear made its way through the stout shield of Turnus: comp. Il. 7. 247—249: “molitur iter,” of a difficult journey 6. 477. ‘Tandem etiam’ carries on the idea of ‘molitur.’ ‘De corpore,’ as Heyne says, is like the Greek partitive gen., τοῦ σώματος ἐπέγραψε.

[479, 480] Εἵλετο δ᾽ ἄλκιμον ἔγχος ἀκαχμένον ὀξέϊ χαλκῷ, Il. 10. 135., 15. 482. ‘Librans’ 11. 556.

[481] Nunc magis est is mentioned by Serv. as a various reading for ‘num mage sit.’ ‘Penetrabile,’ active, as in G. 1. 93. See Munro's note on Lucr. 1.11. With the whole passage comp. 9. 747, 748.

[482, 483] Virg. ventures to use ‘terga’ with ‘ferri,’ to which it is not strictly appropriate, because of the mention of bull's hide immediately afterwards: comp. v. 784, below, “per linea terga tribusque Transiit intextum tauris opus:” a similar liberty similarly justified. ‘Cum’ Rom. and two of Ribbeck's cursives: ‘quom’ some of Pierius' copies: ‘quem’ Med. and Gud. ‘Quem’ is approved by Markland on Stat. 1 Silv. 1. 41, and adopted by Ribbeck, probably rightly: in point of meaning there is little to choose between the two readings, and we may therefore be decided by the agreement of Med. and Gud. ‘Quem obeat,’ in spite of the hide surrounding it: see note on 2. 248 and Madv. § 366. 3. ‘Obeat’ covers the framework, which was probably wicker-work or wood (Dict. A. ‘clipeus’). “Quem fulva leonis Pellis obit totum” 8. 552.

[484] Medium cuspis Rom. and Gud. ‘Cuspis medium’ (perhaps better) Med. and two of Ribbeck's cursives, and so Ribbeck. ‘Vibranti ictu’ a characteristic refinement: “vibranti gladio . . Occupat” more simply 9. 769.

[485] Loricae moras like “clipei mora” 12. 541: comp. “fossarum morae” 9. 143. See Munro on Lucr. 6.453. Serv. wished to make ‘ingens’ agree with ‘cuspis’ above: “ne sit incongruum de puero ingens pectus.

[486] Ribbeck reads ‘de corpore’ from Gud., which has ‘de volnere’ as a variant in the margin: comp. “eduxit corpore telum” v. 744 below. Another of Ribbeck's cursives has ‘de pectore.’ But the repetition ‘volnere,’ ‘volnus’ might easily be paralleled, even if the Aeneid were a finished poem. Virg. has borrowed the language of Il. 16. 503 foll. δὲ λὰξ ἐν στήθεσι βαίνων Ἐκ χροὸς ἕλκε δόρυ, προτὶ δὲ φρένες αὐτῷ ἕποντο, Τοῖο δ᾽ ἅμα ψυχήν τε καὶ ἔγχεος ἐξέρυσ᾽ αἰχμήν.

[487, 488] The lengthening of the final syllable of ‘sanguis’ and the phrase ‘corruit in volnus’ recall Lucr. 4.1049, 1050, “Namque omnes plerumque cadunt in volnus, et illam Emicat in partem sanguis unde icimur ictu.” “Sanguĭs is unknown to Lucretius,” Munro notes 1 on 1. 853. Virg. has ‘sanguĭs’ three times: but he usually places the word either before a consonant or at the end of a line: Ov. F. 6. 488 has “educet: at sanguis ille sororis erat:” Sen. Med. 775, “Vectoris istic perfidi sanguis inest.” Virg. lengthens the last syllable of ‘pulvis’ 1. 478. ‘Sanguisque,’ the reading before Heins., is found in none of Ribbeck's MSS. With ‘eorruit in volnus’ comp. further Livy 1. 58, “prolapsaque in volnus moribunda cecidit.” Virg. nearly borrows Ennius' translation of the Homeric δούπησεν δὲ πεσών, ἀράβησε δὲ τεύχἐ ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ: “Concidit et sonitum simul insuper arma dederunt” (Ann. 396).

[489] It is doubtful whether ‘terram petit ore’ means that he bites the earth (ὀδὰξ ἑλεῖν) or falls on his face (comp. Od. 22. 94, Δούπησεν δὲ πεσών, χθόνα δ᾽ ἤλασε παντὶ μετώπῳ). The latter is perhaps more probable. Sen. Here. F. 895, “Ultrice dextra fusus, adverso Lyeus Terram cecidit ore.” “Terram petimus” of kneeling 3. 93 note. ‘Cruento,’ perhaps because the blood comes out at his mouth and nostrils: comp. Od. 22. 18.

[490, 491] Rom. fills up the line with “sic ore profatur,” and Leid, with “sic voce superba.” “Haec memores regi mandata referte” 11. 176.

[492] Qualem meruit, such as Evander deserved to see him after his alliance with Aeneas. To suppose with Heyne that it means ‘dead, but honourably dead.’ is to mistake Turnus' feeling, which evidently is not meant to deserve our sympathy. Serv. mentions a possible pointing, joining ‘Euandro’ with what follows, which would be obviously inferior.

[493, 494] Honos 6. 333 note. Comp. Aesch. Theb. 1021, ταφέντ᾽ ἀτίμως τοὐπιτίμιον λαβεῖν. Ἀλλ᾽ ἔστ᾽ Ὀρέστου ταῦτα τἀπιτίμια Soph. El. 915, of the offerings on a tomb. ‘He (Evander) will find that his entertainment of Aeneas has cost him dear:’ meant perhaps, as Forb. thinks, as a reason for the preceding sentence: ‘even as it is he will lose enough’ &c.; but it makes as good sense if taken independently. ‘Aeneia hospitia’ different from “Iunonia hospitia” 1. 671, the hospitality which Juno gives: see on v. 396.

[495, 496] In Hom. the conqueror sets his foot on his fallen enemy in order to draw out his spear Il. 5. 620 &c.): in one passage however. Il. 13. 618, we read δὲ λὰξ ἐν στήθεσι βαίνων Τεύχεά τ᾽ ἐξενάριξε καὶ εὐχόμενος ἔπος ηὔδα, &c. Is this a mark of insult, such as the feeling of later Greece condemned (see the commentators on Soph. Aj. 1348), or merely done for the convenience of stripping off the spoils? ‘Inmania pondera baltei’ would seem to show that Virg. here intended the latter. In 12. 356 the foot is put on the neek that the weapon may be driven into the throat. ‘Rapiens’ &c.: comp. Il. 13. 527, πήληκα φαεινὴν Ἥρπασε (Cerda): so above, vv. 449, 462. ‘Inmania pondera’ accounted for by ‘multo auro’ v. 499.

[497, 498] Inpressum nefas, the scene of horror stamped upon it: the story of the Danaides. The construction ‘caesa manus’ after the acc. ‘inpressumque nefas’ is irregular. Comp. 7. 741, “Et quos maliferae despectant moenia Abellae, Teutonico ritu soliti torquere cateias:” ib. 785 foll. “Galea alta Chimaeram Sustinet . . . Tam magis illa fremens” &c. Such a transition of cases is not uncommon in Homer, e. g. Il. 10. 436 foll. Τοῦ δὴ καλλίστους ἵππους ἴδον ἠδὲ μεγίστους: Λευκότεροι χιόνος, θείειν δ᾽ ἀνέμοισιν ὁμοῖοι.

[499, 500] Clonus Eurytides (supported by all Ribbeck's MSS., though with some slight varieties of spelling) was restored for ‘bonus Eurytion’ (5. 541) by Commelin and Heins. The specification of the artist is after the manner of Homer. Il. 18. 131 (of the arms of Achilles) Τὰ μὲν κορυθαίολος Ἕκτωρ Αὐτὸς ἔχων ὤμοισιν ἀγάλλεται: of which the Graecism “gaudetque potitus” is a translation. With this comp. “gaudent perfusi sanguine fratrumG. 2. 510.

[501, 502] Il. 17. 201, δεῖλ᾽, οὐδέ τί τοι θάνατος καταθύμιός ἐστιν, Ὅς δή τοι σχεδόν ἐστι: but the idea of ‘servare modum’ is not in the spirit of Hom. so much as in that of the Greek tragedians. With the twofold construction after ‘Nescia’ comp. G. 1. 25 note. For the introduction of a reflection by the poet in the middle of a narrative see on 4. 65.

[503, 504] Perhaps suggested by the Homeric ἔσσεται ἦμαρ ὅταν ποτ᾽ ὀλώλῃ Ἴλιος ἱρή. Virg. prophesies himself what Hom. puts into the mouth of his dying warriors, e. g. Patroclus Il. 16. 852 foll., Hector ib. 22. 358 foll. ‘Magno cum optaverit’ &c. a glance at Turnus' “haud illi stabunt Aeneia parvo Hospitia.” The fut. perf. ‘optaverit’ (corresponding to the tense of ὀλώλη) implies that the wishing will be over and done with. With ‘magno emptum’ comp. 2. 104, “magno mercentur Atridae.” ‘Intactum Pallanta’=‘Pallanta non tetigisse:’ comp. “pulsi Turni gloris” v. 143 above. ‘Ista’ as if Virg. were addressing Turnus: or perhaps as Wagn. Q. V. 19. 2 thinks, as if he were speaking to his readers: ‘these spoils which you see.’ Med. a m. p. has ‘ipsa.

[505] The rhythm is finely adapted to the sense: comp. that of 4. 667, “lamentis gemituque et femineo ululatu.

[506] “At Lausum socii exanimem super arma ferebant” v. 841 below.

[507] Comp. Martial 11. 13. 5 “Romani decus et dolor theatri” (Cerda). ‘Decus rediture parenti,’ like “decus addite divis” 8. 301 (Germ.). Rom. has ‘parentis.’ Virg. addresses Pallas as he addresses Nisus and Euryalus, 9. 446 foll., expressing also the thoughts of the Arcadians: comp. 2. 29 note. The question whether he or they are speaking was raised as early as Serv.

[508] Comp. Ov. Fast. 2. 235, “Una dies Fabios ad bellum miserat omnes: Ad bellum missos perdidit una dies” (Porb.). The comm. also comp. Soph. Oed. R. 438, ἥδ᾽ ἡμέρα φύσει σε καὶ διαφθερεῖ.

[509] Comp. v. 245 above: “Ingentis Rutulae spectabit caedis acervos.” On ‘tamen’ see E. 10. 31 note. Vv. 509— 531 are written by another hand in Pal.

[510-605] ‘Aeneas, roused to fury by the death of Pallas, hurries to the relief of the distressed Arcadians, and slays a number of the enemy's warriors. The siege is thus raised at length, and the Trojans are released from their confinement in the camp.’

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