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[64] Silentia rumpere Lucr. 4.583, and Hor. Epod. 5. 85. With ‘obductum dolorem’ comp. Cic. Leg. Agr. 3. 2, “ne refricare obductam iam reipublicae cicatricem viderer” (Forc.). Ov. M. 12. 542, “quid me meminisse malorum Cogis, et obductos annis rescindere luctus?” where, however, the precise image is somewhat different, though Serv. explains ‘obductum’ here of a wound skinned over.

[66] Both ‘sequi’ and ‘se inferre’ are chosen to express that the act is gratuitous on the part of Aeneas. Lucr. 5. 868 has “pacem sequi,” to desire or follow after peace. Comp. E. 2. 64, “cytisum sequitur lasciva capella” for looking follow With ‘hostem se inferre’ comp. 11. 742, “Venulo adversum se turbidus infert,” and see Livy 2. 30., 6. 12, where ‘se inferre’ is similarly used with the dat.

[67] Med. (originally), Pal., Rom., and the Verona fragm. have ‘petit fatis;’ Gu., Med. (corrected), and two of Ribbeck's cursives ‘petiit fatis.’ ‘Fatis petiit,’ from ‘libri nonnulli admodum vetusti’ of Pierius, was adopted by Heinsius, who was followed by Heyne and Wagn. in his large edition. It was naturally approved by Lachmann (on Lucr. 3.1042) as confirming his doctrine about the quantity of the final it in ‘petiit’ and the perfects of “eo” and its compounds. See Excursus on G. 2. 81 (2nd ed.). Juno speaks of ‘fata’ as of a power opposed to her in 1. 39: here, with her ‘esto,’ she first allows the case of her opponents, and then in the next line adds her own comment on it, interpreting ‘fatis’ as ‘prophecies’ (1. 382), and the prophecies as the ravings of Cassandra. ‘Auctor’ here in the same sense as in the phrase ‘patres auctores fiunt.’ Comp. “deus auctor Apollo” 8. 335, and “auctor ego audendi” 12. 159. The sense requires a colon before and after ‘esto,’ not (as Forb. punctuates) a comma.

[68] “Sola mihi talis casus Cassandra canebat” 3. 183. Comp. with ‘furiis’ “sponsae praecepta furentis” 2. 345. ‘Linquere castra:’ for the facts, see 9. 8 foll.

[69] The plur. ‘hortati,’ unless we are to suppose that Virg. intends to imitate the Greek fashion of making women, in the plur., speak of themselves in the masc. gender (Jelf, Gr. Gr. § 390 c.), includes Juno and the gods on her side. Comp. 1. 250, where Venus speaks of herself and Aeneas as “nos tua progenies.” Comp. below, v. 72. ‘Vitam committere ventis’ is her rhetorical way of describing Aeneas' voyage, mentioned at the beginning of Book 8 (see v. 48, note). With the expression comp. 11. 560, “quae nunc dubiis committitur auris.” Gud. has ‘Teucris’ as a variant, probably from an unseasonable reminiscence of 12. 60.

[70] Pal. and Gud. (originally) have ‘non puero.’ ‘Summa belli’ is used in a concrete sense, and is further explained by ‘muros,’ the walls of the camp. Comp. 12. 572, where Aeneas, speaking of the city of Latinus, says, “hoc caput, O cives, haec belli summa nefandi,” and Livy 28. 9, “iis . . . summa rerum et custodia urbis permissa:” ib. 44. 3, “omnis regio ad Dium et Philam . . . oculis subiicitur. Quae res accendit militum animos, postquam summam belli et regias omnis copias terramque hostilem tam e propinquo conspexerunt.” Comp. note on 2. 322.

[71] ‘Tyrrhenamve’ Rom., the Verona fragm., and one of Ribbeck's cursives, while another has it in an erasure, and so Gossrau. But ‘que’ has more authority; and, if there be any difference, suits the sense better, as Aeneas' hopes from the Etruscans are the reason of his leaving the walls. ‘Tyrrhenam fidem agitare,’ ‘to disurb the loyalty of the Tyrrhenes:’ not, as Heyne says, ‘to move for an alliance with the Tyrrhenes;’ an interpretation which would greatly strain the words ‘Tyrrhena fides,’ and involve an awkward zeugma in the use of ‘agitare.’ Juno is, of course, exaggerating and mis-stating, as if Mezentius' subjects were loyal, and the Arcadians at peace with their neighbours. For ‘aut’ Rom. has ‘et.

[72] Comp. 9. 601, “Quis deus Italiam, quae vos dementia adegit?” The use of ‘fraus’ in the general sense of harm is common in Latin (see Forc.). With this passage comp. “pellicere in fraudemLucr. 5.1006. ‘Dura’ refers to v. 45. Ribbeck has restored ‘nostra,’ the second reading of Med., which has the authority of all the other chief MSS. Med.'s first reading ‘nostri’ (comp. 4. 337., 8. 514) was adopted by Heinsius, followed by Heyne and Wagn.

[73] Hic, ‘in all this:’ comp. 6. 399, ‘nullae hic insidiae tales.’ Med. has ‘hinc,’ corrected into ‘hic.’ ‘Demissave nubibus Iris’ v. 38.

[74] Indignum, unworthy or unfit in the relation in which the Italians must stand to the infant Troy—a cause for indignation. Comp. Livy 2. 12, “Mucius . . . cui indignum videbatur populum Romanum . . . ab . . . Etruscis obsideri quorum saepe exercitus fuderit.” See also G. 1. 491. ‘Igni circumdare muros’ 9. 153. Rufinianus p. 270 R. quotes the present passage with ‘succendere.’ ‘Troiam nascentem:’ she quotes Venus' words (v. 27) as in v. 45 and 85.

[75] Consistere is used of the immigrants taking their stand on Italian soil 6. 807 (note), 8. 10. With the spirit of the line comp. that of 1. 541, “primaque vetant consistere terra.

[76] Pilumnus is “parens” of Turnus in 9. 4 (note), and his “quartus pater” in v. 619 below. Venilia was a sea-nymph represented as wife sometimes of Neptune, sometimes of Janus. See Preller, Römische Mythologie, pp. 163, 503. The line is an expansion of the thought contained in ‘patria,’ v. 75. ‘Though he has the blood of Italian gods in his yeins.’

[77] Quid, answering to ‘indignum,’ ‘what do you call it that,’ &c. ‘Face atra,’ 9. 74, “atque omnis facibus pubes accingitur atris.” The torch is the symbol of war and its desolations. Comp. 4. 626. Pal., and originally Gud., have ‘atram.’ The clause is an exaggeration founded on the conflict of 7. 519 foll. With ‘vim ferre Latinis’ comp. G. 4. 330, “fer stabulis inimicum ignem.” In Livy 28. 8 some MSS. give “ut Dardanis (?) bellum ferret.” Here, as might be expected, some inferior MSS. have ‘inferre.

[78] Arva, though constantly used in the general sense of ‘territory,’ may here, especially in connexion with ‘avertere praedas,’ be meant to suggest the idea of soil from which the invaders might reap profit. Comp. 3. 136, “connubiis arvisque novis operata iuventus.” But to understand the words ‘iugo premere’ (as Wagn. does) of ploughing, whether in a general sense or with special reference to 7. 157, would be to strain them too far. They imply no more than ‘to oppress,’ which is Juno's way of saying ‘to occupy.’ Comp. 8. 148, “quin omnem Hesperium penitus sua sub iuga mittant.” “Animum iugo premit Cupido turpis” Sen. Ag. 134 (Forc.). ‘Avertere,’ the regular word for carrying off plunder: in Virg. we have “avertere equos” (1. 472) and “tauros” 8. 208. Comp. also “vertere praedas” 1. 528.

[79] Legere used in its ordinary sense of ‘to choose,’ implying that the choice was arbitrary and all on the side of Aeneas. Serv. would put upon it the meaning of “furari” (comparing “sacrilegus”), which would be hardly in place here. The plural ‘soceros,’ like ‘gremiis’ and ‘pactas,’ is rhetorical: so “liberos,” Cic. De Imp. Cn. Pompeii 12. 33. Hoffmann conj. “socios.” ‘Pactas,’ as in Livy 1. 2, “cui pacta Lavinia fuit:” “pactae coniugis” v. 722 below. There seems to have been a technical distinction between “pacta” and “sponsa:” “sponsa” implying a woman betrothed by an “interposita stipulatio” or formal agreement, which was not implied by “pacta:” Arnobius 4. 20, Non. p. 440: but the distinction was not, probably, present to Virg.'s mind. “Abducere” 7. 362.

[80] With ‘pacem orare manu’ comp. 8. 116, “paciferaeque manu ramum praetendit olivae” (to which there is probably a reference here), and 11. 332, “pacisque manu praetendere ramos.” Here the hand, which elsewhere is the symbol of action as opposed to speech, is the token of pretence. Rom. has ‘manu et.’ ‘Praefigere puppibus arma’ probably, as Serv. suggests, refers to the scene described in 8. 92, “miratur nemus insuetum fulgentia longe Scuta virum fluvio.” From 1. 183, joined with the present passage, we may infer that arms were hung up on the sterns of the vessels: comp. Val. Fl. 1. 339, “Primus in auratis posuissem puppibus arma,” and see ib. 495., 5. 8, 214. It would be less natural to take the passage with Wagn. as an allusion to the custom of holding up a shield as the signal for battle (see below on v. 262).

[81, 82] Subducere, v. 50, note. In Il. 5. 315, Aphrodite does not hide Aeneas in a cloud, but throws the fold of her garment over him: Apollo rescues him in a cloud, ib. 344, and so does Poseidon, Il. 20. 321 foll. (Comp. A. 5. 810.) Virg. may also have remembered Il. 3. 380 foll. There is the same confusion 12. 52. ‘Ventos inanis’ 6. 740, note. “Auras inanis” 7. 593.

[83] Ribbeck changes ‘et’ into ‘tu’ from a conj. by Markland on Stat. Silv. 3. 2. 81. For the fact alluded to see 9. 80 foll. The commentators notice that it was Cybele, not Venus, who performed the miracle: a remarkable inadvertence on Virg.'s part. ‘Classes’ Med. and one of Ribbeck's cursives: a recollection of v. 36. ‘Totidem,’ as if the distributive ‘naves’ had been used instead of the aggregate ‘classem.’ The use of ‘classem’ enables Virg. to make the order of words more artificial. For the thought comp. 9. 121 foll.

[84] Aliquid, 1. 463, “feret haec aliquam tibi fama salutem:” 2. 89, “et nos ahquod nomenque decusque Gessimus.” “Attenuat dicendoaliquid.” Serv. With the double accusative ‘aliquid Rutulos iuvisse’ comp. 12. 872, “Quid nunc te tua, Turne, potest germana iuvare?

[85] Aeneas ignarus abest, above v. 25. A full stop should be put at the end of the line, and a colon at ‘Cythera:’ not vice versa, as Wagn. punctuates, mistaking the connexion, which he supposes to be, ‘You need not claim pity for Ascanius, on account of his father's absence, as you have a refuge ready for him.’ Juno runs over the different points of Venus' speech, dismissing each with a contemptuous retort.

[86, 87] See above, vv. 51, 52. ‘Alta Cythera’ is coupled with ‘Idalium’ 1. 681, 2. The connexion is, ‘You have places of your own, suited to love, and soft hearts to practise on: why do you stray from your province to meddle with warlike lands and savage spirits?’ Virg. is thinking of Diomede's taunt to Aphrodite, Il. 5. 348 foll. Comp. ib. 428 foll. ‘Gravidam bellis’ recalls “gravidam inperiis” 4. 229. With the thought comp. The rest of that line, “belloque frementem Italiam,” and 1. 263. ‘Corda temptas,’ like “animum temptare” 4. 113, ‘to endeavour to move:’ “occulte temptando animum” Livy 27. 15. “Quas (gentes) P. R. neque lacessendas bello neque temptandas putavit” Cic. Leg. Man. 9.

[88] Nosne tibi, ‘Can you say it was I?’ For the use of ‘tibi’ comp. 2. 601, “non tibi Tyndaridis facies invisa Lacaenae, Culpatusve Paris,” and see Madvig, § 248. ‘Res fluxae’ occurs in Cic. Att. 4.1. Comp. Sall. Jugurtha 104, Livy 27. 17. See also 2. 169 note. For the form ‘fluxas’ see on 5. 332. Juno does not mean ‘fluxas facere et vertere fundo,’ but says, like an enemy of Troy, that its fortunes were fragile before they were overturned: comp. ‘miseros’ in the next line. Thus she takes up and uses the ad misericordiam argument of Venus, v. 60 foll. ‘Vertere fundo’ like “vertere ad imo” 2. 625., 5. 810: “res Asiae evertere” 3. 1. The metaphor may be from water dribbling away from a vessel partly overturned, which some one at last tilts over.

[89] The continuous act expressed in the present ‘conamur’ is the result of the perfect or completed act ‘obiecit.’ ‘Miseros’ from Venus' speech, v. 61. ‘Qui’ masc. because the meaning is general.

[90] Obiecit of wanton exposure 4. 559., 8. 144. For ‘causa’ followed by inf. see on G. 1. 213. With ‘consurgere in arma’ comp. “consurgere ad bellum” Livy 10. 13 (Forb.).

[91] Comp. 7. 223, “quibus actus uterque Europae atque Asiae fatis concurrerit orbis,” where see note on v. 224. The ‘foedera’ are doubtless the laws of hospitality, which Paris broke, Il. 3. 354., 13. 625 foll. That there was any formal treaty between Greece and Troy does not appear from Homer; in fact, there could hardly have been one previous to the Greek confederacy, though a treaty is executed in Il. 3: but ‘foedus’ occurs repeatedly in Virg. of ties less definite, like those of hospitality 8. 169, 540., 11. 164 (comp. 4. 339), at the same time that his language may be influenced by post-Homeric conceptions, such as are mentioned 7. 224 cited above. Serv., as usual, has a story about diplomatic relations arising out of the capture of Troy by Hercules. In ‘foedera solvere furto’ Virg. may have thought of Aesch. Ag. 401, ᾔσχυνε ξενίαν τράπεζαν κλοπαῖσι γυναικός.

[92] Me duce like “duce te” applied by Aeneas to Apollo 6. 59. The words ‘Spartam expugnavit adulter’ are to be taken literally, not with Wagn. in the sense of “Spartanam pudicitiam expugnavit.” Juno is exaggerating as in v. 68, 78; and as, by the words ‘foedera solvere,’ she has talked as if previous treaties of peace existed between Greece and Asia, so here she represents Paris' voyage as an invasion ending in the sacking of Sparta, suggesting thereby that the sacking of Troy was but a just retribution. Virg. has worked upon the words of Hom. Il. 3. 46 foll.:—

τοιόσδε ἐών, ἐν ποντοπόροισι νεεσσιν πόντον ἐπιπλώσας, ἑτάρους ἐρίηρας ἀγείρας, μιχθεὶς ἀλλοδαποῖσι, γυναῖκ᾽ εὐειδἔ ἀνῆγες, κ.τ.λ.

Indeed, he may have understood μιχθεὶς ἀλλοδαποῖσι in the sense of ‘having fought with strangers,’ and taken the ποντόποροι νῆες for a hostile fleet. The notion that Paris really stormed Sparta worked itself into the later Roman versions of the story of Troy, perhaps from a misunderstanding of the rhetorical character of this passage: see Statius Achill. 1. 20, 65; Dictys Cretensis 1—3, “expugnatam quippe domum regis (Menelai) eversumque regnum et alia in talem modum singuli disserebant:” also Dares Phrygius 10, who elaborates Il. 3. 45 foll. into great detail. Comp. also Serv. here and on 1. 526.

[93] Some inferior MSS. (but none of Ribbeck's) have ‘fovique.’ If ‘Cupidine’ is taken as referring to the god, it is only because the god represents the passion. Such an expression as “fovive Apolline bella” could not have stood.

[94] Metuo with dat. as G. 1. 186inopi metuens formica senectae.” Perhaps the perf. may be pressed: ‘to have feared for their own, and therefore abstained from wickedness:’ or we may say that it is used to enforce still further the notion of what should have been done in the past. ‘Sera’ fem. nom., not adverbial neut. pl.

[95] Querelis adsurgis is taken by Heinrich and Wagn. to = ‘surgis ad querelas iactandas:’ but the abl. is more natural, and supported by v. 797 below, “adsurgentis dextra:G. 2. 160, “fluctibus et fremitu adsurgens.” Venus had, of course, risen to speak.

[96-117] ‘The tumult which greets Juno's speech is hushed, and Jupiter begins, while heaven, and earth, and sea are silent to listen. He will not interfere in the battle to save or to destroy: each nation, each man, shall be left to his own fortune or destiny.’

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