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[139] Iam does not answer to ‘modo,’ as Forb. thinks, but expresses that the news was already reaching Evander at the time spoken of. ‘Praenuntia’ seems to imply that the report anticipated the arrival of the accredited messengers, the funeral procession.

[140] Replet is the reading of the majority of MSS., ‘conplet’ only appearing in Ribbeck's list as the second reading of Med. “Haec (Fama) populos replebat” 4. 189. ‘Conplet,’ as Wagn. remarks, may have arisen from 9. 39.

[141] “‘Latiopro in Latio,” Serv.; but the ambiguity is rather awkward.

[142] ‘De more vetusto:’ torches were carried at a Roman funeral, apparently a remnant of the custom of burying by night. Here there is nothing (unless it be v. 144) to indicate that the funeral is not conducted by day, though of course the procession would be long in arriving at Pallanteum. Serv. collects various opinions, tending to show that torchlight interment was appropriate in the case of Pallas, of which perhaps the most important is the following: “Alii, sicut Varro et Verrius Flaccus, dicunt, si filiusfamilias extra urbem decessit, liberti amicique obviam procedunt, et sub noctem in urbem infertur in (?) cereis facibus praelucentibus, ad cuius exsequias nemo rogabatur.” Some have supposed that “funalia” were carried at an ordinary funeral, “cerei” at the funeral of one who died prematurely; and three passages of Seneca (Epp. 122, Tranq. An. 11, Brev. Vit. ad finem) seem to bear out the latter part of the proposition at any rate: but Casaubon on Pers. 3. 103 rejects the opinion. In the passages which speak of funeral ‘faces’ it is not always easy to say whether the reference is to a torch-light procession or to the lighting of the pile: see e. g. those given in Lipsius' Excurs. 1 on Tac. A. 3. For the concourse to meet the procession comp. Il. 24. 707 foll.

[143] Rapuere seems merely to express the sudden action on hearing the news. With what follows comp. Tac. A. 3. 4 (of the funeral of Germanicus), “collucentes per campum Martis faces,” cited by Lersch, § 86.

[144] Late discriminat seems to mean that the procession as it moves in a bright line along the country casts a light on each side.

[145] Iungit (sibi) agmina 2. 267., 4. 142. Heins. read ‘iungunt’ from Med.; but it seems to have been altered to suit ‘agmina,’ as not unfrequently happens in MSS.

[146] Succedere tectis 1. 627, here to enter the city.

[147] “Clamore incendunt caelum” 10. 895: comp. 9. 500.

[148] Potis 3. 671. So Il. 22. 412, of Priam, λαοὶ μέν ῥα γέροντα μόλις ἔχον ἀσχαλόωντα.

[149] ‘Pallanta’ seems to be only found in Med. a m. s., the rest having ‘Pallante.’ The error has apparently arisen from ignorance of the meaning of ‘reposto,’ which refers to the setting down of the bier, not to the stretching of Pallas on it. Serv. however, reading ‘Pallante,’ explains it strangely as an antiptosis for “posito Pallantis feretro:” and if ‘Pallanta’ was the original reading, we should have expected that some MSS. would have read ‘Pallanta repostum.’ ‘Pallante’ too might conceivably be constructed with ‘super,’ though the ambiguity of the ablatives would be in the last degree harsh.

[150] Rom. has ‘procumbit,’ Pal. ‘haerens.

[151] Vocis Pal. and Gud., ‘voci’ Ribbeck's other MSS., except that Med. a m. p. had ‘voces.’ Either is sufficiently good. Perhaps Lucr. 6.1148, “ulceribus vocis via saepta coibat,” may be allowed to decide the question for ‘vocis,’ as “saepta” contrasts well with ‘laxata.’ Comp. 7. 533, “udae Vocis iter.” ‘Dolore:’ grief would in the first instance choke the voice, afterwards leave it free, so that we may comp. “vento staretE. 2. 26. The alliteration here and in v. 160 is doubtless intended: see on 2. 494.

[152] Heyne, following Faber, and followed by Wagn. and Forb., separates this line from the following, which he understands as expressing a wish. But though the imperf. ‘velles’ in this sense might perhaps be defended, the introduction of the wish here would be rather abrupt, without at the same time giving the impression of thoughts disturbed by emotion. On the other hand, ‘CautiusMarti’ naturally expresses the purport of the promise given by Pallas to his father. ‘Non haec’ will then = “alia,” and ‘ut velles’ will depend on ‘dederas promissa,’ just as in vv. 796 foll. ‘sterneret’ depends on ‘adnuit,’ ‘videret’ on ‘dedit.’ Serv. mentions another reading ‘petenti,’ which some have preferred. With the sense generally comp. vv. 45 foll. Pal. and originally Gud. have ‘Pallas,’ Pal. having originally had ‘dederat.

[153] Rom. has ‘aut.

[154] The connexion seems to be, ‘I might have foreseen this, for’ &c. ‘Nova gloria in armis’ and ‘praedulce decus primo certamine’ are slightly different modes of expressing the same thing, ‘in armis’ being probably constructed with ‘gloria,’ nearly as if it were “gloria militandi.

[156] Pallas' exploits and early death are regarded as a specimen of what he might have achieved, and as a specimen also of the fortunes of the campaign. In the first view they might be called glorious: but the father's feeling makes him speak of them as ‘miserae.’ In the second they were necessarily melancholy, ‘dura.’ The war might be called ‘propinqui,’ as being on Evander's frontier (comp. 8. 569), but there would be no force in such an epithet here; so it seems best to take it of nearness in time, for which sense see Forc.

[157] Comp. Aesch. Ag. 396, λιτᾶν δ᾽ ἀκούει μὲν οὔτις θεῶν.

[158] Vota precesque 6. 51. ‘Sanctissima’ as being dead, like “sancte parens” 5. 80. Forc. cites Cic. Phil. 14. 12, “Actum praeclare vobiscum, fortissimi dum vixistis nunc vero etiam sanctissimi milites.” Comp. also Tibullus 2. 6. 31, “Illa mihi sancta est, illius dona sepulchro Et madefacta meis serta feram lacrimis.” Cic. Rab. Perd. 10, “mentes quae mihi videntur ex hominum vita ad deorum religionem et sanctimoniam demigrasse.

[159] “Felix opportunitate mortis” Tac. Agr. 45. ‘Servata’ connected with ‘felix,’ happy in that you did not survive.

[160] “‘Vici mea fata,’ i. e. naturalem ordinem vita longiore superavi . . . namque hic ordo naturalis est, ut sint parentibus superstites liberi,” Serv., who mentions that some wished to make ‘mea fata’ an exclamation. Comp. 6. 114, “viris ultra sortemque senectae.” The words are from Lucr. 1.202, “vivendo vitalia vincere saecla,” where Munro remarks that there, here, and in Virg.'s other imitation G. 2. 295, the alliteration has influenced the phrase. Virg. may also have thought of the Homeric ὑπὲρ μόρον, applying the phrase to life instead of to death. ‘Superstes’ with ‘restarem.

[161] “Socia arma” 8. 120.

[162] Evander wishes that he had perished in his son's place. ‘Obruerent’ seems to be used because it is conceived of as a continuing act, “iacerem obrutus telis:” or we may say with Wagn. that Evander throws himself into the time when Pallas was killed. For the subj. see on v. 118 above. ‘Animam dedissemG. 4. 204.

[164] Arguerim: the subj. seems to have a touch of courtesy, μεμφοίμην ἄν. Rom. has ‘arguerem.’ With the sense Cerda comp. Il. 3. 164, οὔτι μοι αἰτίη ἐσσί, θεοί νύ μοι αἴτιοί εἰσιν.

[165] “Iungimus hospitio dextras” 3. 83. In what follows Evander is not strictly consistent with what he said v. 160: but his meaning evidently is that fate designed this blow with special malice to crush his old age. ‘Ista’ probably means, ‘which you are now bringing home to me.’ Some old editions have ‘illa.

[166] Debita erat, in the counsels of destiny. So the imperf. ‘manebat.’ For ‘inmatura’ Pal. corrected and Gud. read ‘iam matura,’ contrary to metre and sense.

[167] Volscorum, about which a difficulty has been made, is a mere variety, as in 9. 505.

[168] The sense of the sentence depends on the reading of the last word in this line. If, with most editors before Wagn., and with Ribbeck, we read ‘iuvabit’ (Pal., Gud. corrected, Canon.), the meaning will be that Evander is glad that Pallas has died as joint general of the Trojans, after slaying thousands of the enemy: if, with most modern editors, ‘iuvaret’ (Med., Gud. re-corrected, supported by Rom. ‘iuvare’), Evander will say that he would rather Pallas had died when the Trojan victory was consummated. There can be little doubt that the former is the more natural expression for the bereaved father, and more in accordance with the lines which follow, while there is nothing in the language in any way inconsistent with it. Virg. in fact says just what he had said 10. 509, “Cum tamen ingentis Rutulorum linquis acervos.” The variety may be accounted for by transcriptural confusion: we have just seen ‘arguerim’ and ‘arguerem’ confounded, v. 164, and ‘r’ and ‘b’ are frequently confused in such cases, as in 5. 107, 836.

[169] For ‘digner’ Serv. mentions a variety ‘dignem,’ an archaic form, which however no MS. is known to support.

[170] “Deest quo, ut sit quam quo,” Serv.

[171] The repetition of ‘Tyrrhenum,’ as Wagn. rightly remarks, stands in place of a copulative. See on E. 4. 6. With the line generally comp. v. 598 below.

[172] Of the two interpretations which Heyne offers of this disputed verse, “illi quos tua dextera leto dedit magna tropaea tibi afferunt,” “Troes et Tyrrheni magna tropaea ferunt eorum quos dat &c.,” the first seems decidedly preferable, though it has not been generally adopted. The only thing in favour of the second is the use of “ferre,” v. 84; but there seems nothing intentional in the parallel, and the present line obviously suggests a kind of balance between the two clauses, which would be quite lost by giving ‘ferunt’ a different subject from ‘quos.’ ‘Great are the trophies they bring you whom your right hand gives to death.’ ‘Ferunt’ too, thus interpreted, helps to account for ‘dat,’ which stands in a sort of false correspondence to it, both being supposed to be parts of a general statement. The same accommodation of tenses to each other is found in English poetry, though there the rhyme may be an additional excuse. Thus Milman, Martyr of Antioch, “The Lord Almighty doth but take the mortal life He giveth,” and the hymn commencing “Eternal God, who hatest No work that Thou createst.” Rom., and originally Gud., and another of Ribbeck's cursives have ‘ferant,’ which Jahn at one time preferred, explaining the connexion, “Melius funus quam Aeneas, Troiani et Tyrrheni parare nequeo: ferant igitur Troiani tropaea.” For ‘dat leto’ see on G. 3. 480.

[173] He goes on to say that to these trophies Turnus' would have been added, had the combatants been equally matched in years, and identifies the dead men with the trophy, as Aeneas did v. 16. ‘Inmanis’ refers to the size of Turnus (7. 784), which would enhance the glory of the victory. ‘In armis,’ for which Heins. rather ingeniously conj. ‘in arvis,’ = “armis indutus.” “Stare in armis” occurs 9. 581., 12. 938.

[174] “Si esset tibi aetas par aetati Palladis.” This seems simpler than making the sentence refer to Pallas, though of course the use of the imperf. would be quite defensible. The third view, mentioned by Serv., making Evander speak of his own age and strength, is far less likely. With ‘si’ in the second clause Forb. comp. the position of “per,” 6. 692. The trajection is doubtless facilitated by the fact that ‘si’ might have been omitted altogether, as in 6. 31. Some early editions incorrectly have ‘sit’ for ‘si.’ ‘Robur ab annis’ may be comp. with “fulgorem ab auroLucr. 2.51, though it is possible that ‘esset’ may have some effect on the construction.

[175] Infelix seems to go with ‘demoror:’ ‘Why do I allow my sorrow to detain,’ &c. But it might be understood as a word of self-condemnation: ‘why am I so ill-starred, so foolish as to detain.’ ‘Armis:’ “ab armis,” Serv. Gossrau comp. Stat. Theb. 4. 774, “Sed quid ego haec, fessosque optatis demoror undis?” obviously an imitation of Virg.

[176] For ‘vadite’ Rom. has ‘audite,’ doubtless a mere error. ‘Memores referte,’ as we should say, remember to report. “Memor occule terraG. 2. 347. ‘Mandata’ vobis.

[177] Life, as naturally hastening to an end, is conceived of as delayed by continuing to live.

[178] Gnatoque patrique 4. 605., 6. 116.

[179] With ‘Turnum debere’ comp. 10. 442, “Soli mihi Pallas Debetur.” The difficult sentence which follows is excellently explained by Serv.: “Nihil est aliud quod possit vel virtus tua vel fortuna praestare (nam his rebus victoria contingit), nisi ut occiso Turno et vindices filium et patrem consoleris orbatum.” With ‘tibi, meritis fortunaeque’ we may comp. such constructions as G. 3. 439, “linguis micat ore trisulcis:” here however it may be said that ‘tibi’ depends rather on ‘vacat,’ ‘meritis fortunaeque’ on ‘locus’ (i. q. “locus fortunae meritisque ostentandis”). It has been suggested that ‘meritis’ might agree with ‘tibi fortunaeque,’ which, though ingenious, is unlikely: nor is there more probability in the punctuation which would connect ‘meritis’ with ‘gnatoque patrique.

[180] Vitae is probably, as Wagn. thinks, dative. ‘It is not for my life that I seek this pleasure’ of triumphing over Turnus.

[181] Perferre, sc. “gaudia,” to take the joyful news, with a reference to the expression “perferre nuntium.” ‘Quaero’ then will be constructed with ‘perferre’ here, as with ‘gaudia’ in the preceding line. It would be possible also to take ‘perferre’ as a Greek inf., like Horace's (1 Od. 26. 1 foll.) “tristitiam et metus tradam . . . portare ventis,” “non vitae quaero gaudia sed gnato, quae perferam illi:” but this would be rather awkward, and perhaps in that case we might have expected “gnatum” to be the subject of ‘perferre.’ Various critics have questioned the whole or parts of vv. 179—181 (from ‘meritis’ downwards): but though they are certainly difficult, they are appropriate, and Virgilian enough. With the conclusion here we may comp. the conclusion of Dido's speech, 4. 387, “Audiam, et haec Manis veniet mihi fama sub imos.

[182-202] ‘The Trojans burn their dead with the customary rites.’

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