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[203] Miseri, as having had the worst of the encounter. ‘Diversa’ from the Trojan funeral-ground.

[204] Burying and burning were both practised at Rome, though at different periods and under different circumstances: see Dict. A. ‘Funus.

[205] Terrae infodiunt:infodere in terram” is also found: see Forc. If ‘partimpartim’ answer to each other, the distinction will be between bodies buried on the spot, and bodies sent to Laurentum and to neighbouring territories. But it is possible that the second ‘partim’ (for which one MS. has an ingenious variety, ‘raptim’) may simply repeat the first, the distinction being between both and ‘cetera’ v. 207. ‘Avecta tollunt’ i. q. “tollunt atque avehunt,” like “digesta feraturG. 2. 267.

[206] Urbi is better taken with Heyne of Laurentum than with Serv. of the respective cities of the dead.

[207] “Confusae stragis acervum” 6. 504. Ἔνθα διαγνῶναι χαλεπῶς ἦν ἄνδρα ἕκαστον, Il. 7. 424 (of the Trojan burial). Rom. has ‘stragis’ here. ‘Que’ epexegetical.

[208] Nec numero nec honore with ‘cremant,’ burn them without distinction. For the phrase comp. Caesar, B. G. 6. 13, “hominum qui aliquo sunt numero atque honore.” They are not counted, but buried indiscriminately as they come, on a number of piles. We may call the ablatives modal, or say that they stand for “nec numero nec honore habito.” Virg. may have thought of the τύμβον ἄκριτον ἐκ πεδίου Il. 7. 338, though in that the bones were still kept distinct, or of the captives burnt at Patroclus' pile, τοὶ δ᾽ ἄλλοι ἄνευθεν Ἐσχατιῇ καίοντ᾽ ἐπιμίξ, Il. 23. 241. Pal. and one or two of Ribbeck's cursives have ‘neque honore.

[209] αἰεὶ δὲ πυραὶ νεκύων καίοντο θαμειαί, Il. 1. 52.

[210] On ‘tertia lux’ Serv. says, “Mos enim erat tertia die ossa crematorum legi,” and so Comm. Cruq. on Hor. Epod. 17. 48. “Humentemque Aurora polo dimoverat umbram” 3. 589.

[211] Whether ‘ruebant’ means demolished or heaped up (see on G. 1. 105) is not clear. Either would be an appropriate action; both in fact probably took place, the heaps of ashes being shovelled together from the remains of the piles where the bodies had been burnt, so that the old heaps would be levelled and a new one formed. If we suppose the latter part of the process to be that chiefly in Virg.'s mind, we had better take ‘altum ruebant’ together, swept into a heap.

[212] Focis doubtless stands for the remains of the piles. ‘Tepido:’ the warmth of the embers communicates itself to the mound.

[213] ‘In tectis’ as opposed to the part outside the walls, where the burning and burying took place. Thus ‘urbe’ forms a natural epexegesis. ‘Praedivitis,’ as Gossrau says, points the contrast between the normal state of prosperity and the present one of suffering, though Serv. thinks the epithet incongruous. We may perhaps comp. Il. 18. 288 (Hector to Polydamas), Πρὶν μὲν γὰρ Πριάμοιο πόλιν μέροπες ἄνθρωποι Πάντες μυθέσκοντο πολύχρυσον, πολύχαλκον: Νῦν δὲ δὴ ἐξαπόλωλε δόμων κειμήλια καλά.

[214] Fragor seems to be used somewhat vaguely for a confused noise. In Val. F. 1. 753 it even means rumour. For ‘longi’ two of Ribbeck's cursives have ‘longe,’ which Serv. prefers. But ‘longi’ is certainly the more likely word to have been altered, while at the same time it is not unsuitable to ‘luctus,’ whether it be understood, as in 2. 26, of long duration, or of extent.

[215] Cara, dear to those they mourned.

[216] Pectora seems to be chosen partly as the seat of emotion, partly as being beaten in sign of grief. For the periphrasis comp. G. 4. 13.

[217] Turnique hymenaeos 7. 398.

[218] Armis (for which Bryant conj. ‘animis’) and ‘ferro’ are doubtless meant to enforce the thought by their very tautology. Wagn. comp. ‘vocari’ and ‘posci’ immediately below. “Decernere ferro” 12. 282, 695.

[219] The subj. generalizes. ‘The man who puts forth such claims ought to run the risk in his own person.’ ‘Regnum Italiae’ 4. 275. The kingdom of Italy is supposed to be at stake, because if Aeneas did not succeed, the destiny of Rome would not be accomplished: accordingly the struggle is spoken of in language which would really apply to the contest between Rome and some one of the Italian nations, such as Samnium. In 8. 147 Aeneas accuses the Daunians of aiming at the empire of Italy, though there is nothing elsewhere to show that such was their object.

[220] For ‘haec’ Pal. and originally Gud. have ‘et,’ which was the reading of the old editions. ‘Ingravat:’ “illa meos casus ingravat, illa levat,” Ov. 3 Trist. 4. 60, cited by Forc. ‘Saevus,’ which qualifies ‘ingravat,’ has much the same force as “infensus” v. 336. ‘Vocari’ and ‘posci’ by Aeneas. “Solum Aeneas vocat” v. 442.

[221] Testatur, as having heard Aeneas say so, vv. 115 foll. “In proelia poscere Turnum” 8. 614.

[222] Simul, which Peerlkamp questioned, means merely that at the same time there is a party for Turnus. ‘Variis dictis,’ a modal abl., expressing the way in which the feeling for Turnus showed itself.

[223] Obumbrat,tuetur, defendit,” Serv. Wagn. quotes Livy 7. 30, “Itaque umbra vestri auxilii, Romani, tegi possumus.” Lucan's “magni nominis umbra” (1. 135) may have been suggested by this passage. ‘Magnum reginaenomen:’ “neque enim leve nomen Amatae” 7. 581.

[224] Meritis tropaeis, by the trophies he has won. “Mereri tropaeum” like “mereri laudem:” or it may be deponent, “fama quam tropaea meruerunt.” ‘Virum’ is emphatic: comp. 6. 890. Med. a m. p. gives ‘simul.

[225-242] ‘The feeling is aggravated by the return of the deputation sent to Diomede without success. A council is summoned, and the leader reports the result of his mission.’

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