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[29] Recipere se is a common phrase for returning or retiring: see Forc. ‘Limina’ is the tent-door, and is doubtless meant to be taken strictly, as it was the custom to lay out dead bodies in the vestibule, not only in the heroic ages (Il. 19. 212, κεῖται ἀνὰ πρόθυρον τετραμμένος: ἀμφὶ δ᾽ ἑταῖροι Μύρονται), but at Rome. Comp. Pers. 3. 105, “In portam rigidos calces extendit,” Sen. Ep. 12, “Quis est, inquam, iste decrepitus et merito ad ostium admotus? . . . quid te delectavit alienum mortuum tollere?” Wagn. Q. V. 40 speaks of this passage as one which Virg. would probably have corrected, as it is incredible that Aeneas should be now returning to his tent for the first time. But there is nothing here to indicate that this was his first visit to his tent or to the body. He may have passed the night in his tent, while Acoetes was watching over the body in the vestibule; after which he would rise early, sacrifice, and address his men: and then, returning to his tent, he would find the mourners assembled and the lamentations begun.

[30] “Positum corpus” 2. 644. Rom. has ‘exanimis,’ the last letter, however, in an erasure; Med. ‘exanime,’ which is unintelligible. Some MSS. mentioned by Pierius give ‘exanimum.

[31] Servabat: persons were hired at Rome to watch the body. Lersch § 86 cites Appuleius Met 2, p. 39 Bipont. “si qui mortuum servare vellet, de pretio liceretur.” ‘Parrhasio Euandro’ the Greek rhythm, as in 1. 617 “Dardanio Anchisae” &c. ‘Parrhasio’ 8. 344. The object of the epithet here may be to call back the mind to Evander's early life, as we should say ‘in his Arcadian days.’

[32] So Butes, 9. 648, after having been the armour-bearer of Anchises, is made the ‘comes’ of Ascanius. Comp. also Epytides 5. 546.

[33] Alumno is said of Pallas in relation to Acoetes, not to Evander. “Custos famulusque dei Silenus alumni” Hor. A. P. 239. ‘Datus,’ by Evander. “Comitem Ascanio pater addidit” 9. l. c. ‘Alumno’ is doubtless constructed with ‘datus,’ not with ‘comes ibat,’ in spite of such passages as 6. 158, 447. ‘Ibat’ may have a military reference, ‘was marching,’ or it may be used generally.

[34] Circum: comp. Il. 19. 212, cited on v. 29. ‘Famulum’ for “famulorum” is found in Val. Fl. and Stat.: see Forc.

[35] Nearly repeated from 3. 65. ‘Maestum’ in our technical sense of mourning ib. 64. It has been questioned whether this mention of the Trojan women is consistent with 9. 217, where we are told that Euryalus' mother is the only matron who did not remain behind in Sicily. But the chiefs would have their wives with them, though the widowed matrons might remain behind. Serv. thinks these are Aeneas' female slaves.

[36] “Portis sese extulit ingens” 12. 441.

[37] “Tunsae pectora palmis” 1. 481.

[38] Peerlkamp rather ingeniously conj. ‘misto,’ to avoid the repetition: but such things are sufficiently common in Virg. “Mugire” and its compounds are generally used of deeper and hoarser sounds than those of human lamentation. ‘Inmugiit’ is found in Med. and Pal. (both corrected) and in Gud. (originally): a proof of the untrustworthiness of MS. authority on such questions as that discussed in the excursus to G. 2. 81 (2nd ed.).

[39] Fultum, resting on the couch. ‘Caput et ora’ semi-pleonastically, like “conspectum genitoris et ora” 6. 109.

[40] “‘Levi,pulchro, puerili, nondum saetoso,” Serv. Peerlkamp tastelessly conj. “laevo,” as if Pallas had been pierced to the heart.

[41] Volnus cuspidis Ausoniae like “volnere Ulixi” 2. 436, “Dardaniae cuspidis ictum” 7. 755. One of Ribbeck's cursives, perhaps supported by Gud., has ‘fatus,’ doubtless to get rid of the repetition ‘fatur’—‘inquit.’ Serv. however notices the repetition, for which see on 5. 551, and comp. v. 24 above (note). ‘Lacrimis’ &c.: comp. Il. 18. 235, Δάκρυα θερμὰ χέων, ἐπεὶ εἴσιδε πιστὸν ἑταῖρον Κείμενον ἐν φέρτρῳ, δεδαϊγμένον ὀξέϊ χαλκῷ (of Achilles).

[42] Miserande puer 6. 882., 10. 825. ‘Laeta veniret’ like “veni non asper” 8. 365. Forb. understands ‘cum’ as “quanquam;” but this seems needless. The meaning is that fortune in the moment of victory grudged that Pallas should share the triumph.

[43] With ‘te invidit mihi’ Serv. comp. E. 7. 58, “Liber pampineas invidit collibus umbras.” In v. 269 below we have “invidisse deos ut viderem,” where the subjoined clause expresses the thing grudged.

[44] Comp. generally 2. 577, “Scilicet haec Spartam incolumis patriasque Mycenas Aspiciet, partoque ibit regina triumpho.

[45] “Non haec dederas promissa” below v. 152. As Serv. remarks, this is another instance of Virg.'s indirect narration, as we have been told nothing of these promises. The passage is imitated from Il. 18. 324 foll.

[47] “Missus in inperium magnum” 6. 812. The ‘inperium’ here is not, as Peerlkamp thinks, the command of the Etruscans, but the empire which Evander foresaw that Aeneas would found, as Heyne rightly takes it. With the expression generally comp. Pers. 2. 35, “spem macram supplice voto Nunc Licini in campos, nunc Crassi mittit in aedes.” ‘Metuens’ without an object, as perhaps 12. 21.

[48] “Gens dura atque aspera cultu Debellanda tibi Latio est” 5. 730. Med. a m. s. inserts “in” after ‘dura,’ apparently, as Heyne supposes, considering the construction to be ‘dura in proelia.

[49] Multum with ‘captus,’ not, as Wakef. thought, with ‘inani.’ With the sense Germ. comp. Soph. Aj. 507,αἴδεσαι δὲ μητέρα Πολλῶν ἐτῶν κληροῦχον, σε πολλάκις Θεοῖς ἀρᾶται ζῶντα πρὸς δόμους μολεῖν”.

[50] Et belongs to ‘fors,’ as in 2. 139, where it is wrongly explained in the note, not, as in v. 2 above, to ‘que.’ Serv. says that it may be written ‘forset.’ ‘Et’ in such cases couples ‘fors’ with the verb— a remnant of the time when it did universal duty in connecting sentences together. ‘It is a chance, and he is making vows.’ Comp. G. 2. 80, “nec longum tempus et . . . Exiit . . . arbos.” “Struerem. que suis altaria donis” 5. 54.

[51] Rom. and one of Ribbeck's cursives have ‘exanimem.’ ‘Nil iam caelestibus ullis Debentem:’ “Vivi enim superorum sunt, mortui ad inferos pertinent,” Serv., who however soon loses himself in pseudo. philosophical speculations. So Sil. 15. 370 foll. of the death of Marcellus, “circum. data postquam Nil restare videt virtus quod debeat ultra Iam superis, magnum secum portare sub umbras Nomen mortis avet.” Heyne, however, is doubtless right in supposing that to be also a reference to the vows of v. 50, which being fruitless would create no obligation. Stat. 5 Silv. 1. 185 has imitated Virg.; but he seems merely to mean that the person of whom he speaks, though living, is exempted from the chances of life. Soph. Aj. 589, which has been compared with this passage, is not really parallel: there is more resem. blance in Soph. Ant. 559, δ᾽ ἐμὴ ψυχὴ πάλαι Τέθνηκεν, ὥστε τοῖς θανοῦσιν ὠφελεῖν”.

[52] Vano honore like “inani munere” 6. 885. Comp. “cineri ingrato” 6. 213.

[53] The thought is the same as in G. 4. 477 (note), the father surviving to bury the child.

[54] It matters little whether we make this and the next sentence interrogative with most modern editors, or affirmative with Ribbeck. The apparent imitation in Val. F. 3. 300, cited by Cerda, is perhaps in favour of the former. Rom. has ‘exoptatique,’ and so three other copies in Heyne's and Wagner's lists. Heyne under stands ‘nostri’ “a nobis promissi:” but this is hardly necessary.

[55] Mea magna fides, my solem promise. Comp. Il. 1. 239, δέ τοι μέγας ἔσσεται ὅρκος.

[56] Pulsum is not, as Heyne thinks, πληγέντα, but means put to flight, so that ‘volneribus pulsum’ will mean wounded while flying. This seems to be Serv.'s meaning, “quid autempudendissit ipse exposuit dicendopulsum aspicies.

[57] Serv. mentions a doubt whether the death for which the father was to wish was his own or his son's; and Peerlkamp argues for the latter, contending that ‘dirum’ points that way. But the meaning evidently is that death, which would otherwise be terrible, would in this case be welcomed by the father. There may also be a reference to the application of the word to curses, the father as it were invoking a curse on himself. Pal. and Rom. read ‘obstabis,’ which is of course a mere error from the spelling ‘obtabis,’ itself found in two of Ribbeck's cursives.

[58] Had Pallas lived, he would have supplied the place of an elder brother to Ascanius, and would have been a protection to the new kingdom, in the event of Aeneas' dying prematurely. It matters little whether ‘Ausonia’ is nom. (sc. “perdit”) or voc.

[59-99] ‘The funeral procession is formed, and the body placed on the bier, with spoils and human victims to accompany it. Aeneas briefly bids the corpse farewell.’

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