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[397] The words in this and the next line are more or less an echo of 9. 783 foll. ‘Die’ for “uno die,” as in E. 2. 42, though there “bina” makes a difference, exercising a distributive force on ‘die.’ Forb. comp. Quint. 10. 3, “Vergilium quoque paucissimos die conposuisse versus auctor est Varus,” where “quoque” is not the abl., but refers to a previous mention of Sallust. “Anno” for “uno anno” is found also: see Forc. ‘annus.’ “Sub Tartara mittit” 4. 243.

[399] Nulla salus bello repeated from v. 362. ‘Capiti Dardanio’ 4. 640. ‘Caput’ is chosen here because of its frequent use in execrations. Drances is told to keep his evil forebodings for Aeneas and himself. ‘Canere’ of prediction 3. 559, probably including also the notion of measured utterance, as in 9. 621. It is possible, however, that ‘canere’ was used popularly in such passages as this; comp. Cic. Leg. Agr. 2. 26. 68, “Atque hoc carmen hic tribunus plebis non vobis, sed sibi intus canit.” ‘Demens’ seems rather to be a voc., as Wagn. thinks, than to qualify ‘cane.’ Comp. Il. 18. 293 (Hector to Polydamas), Νῦν δ᾽ ὅτε πέρ μοι ἔδωκε Κρόνου παῖς ἀγκυλομήτεω Κῦδος ἀρέσθ᾽ ἐπὶ νηυσί, θαλάσσῃ τ᾽ ἔλσαι Ἀχαιούς, Νήπιε, μηκέτι ταῦτα νοήματα φαῖν᾽ ἐνὶ δήμῳ: where νήπιος = ‘demens’ as in 6. 172. The commentators also comp. Od. 2. 178.

[400] The force of ‘proinde’ is well given by Heyne, “perge itaque, quod facis, metum de Troianis ingravare.” Canon. has ‘inde,’ and ‘pro’ in Rom. is over an erasure.

[402] “Bis capti Phryges” 9. 599 note. Here the reference must be to the two captures, by Hercules and by the Greeks. ‘Premere’ opp. to ‘extollere’ here and elsewhere (see Forc.), as to ‘laudare’ Hor. 1 Ep. 19. 36. The metaphor here may be from weighing, though in that case the lighter is generally made the inferior. ‘Latini’ perhaps used to identify Latinus with the war.

[403] Nunc, as represented by Drances and those on his side. Comp. the similar passage 4. 376 foll. Nothing had been said of the Myrmidon leaders or Achilles; but Turnus throws it in as a rhetorical summary of Diomed's reported speech.

[404] Nearly from 2. 197.

[405] Aufidus may be mentioned as running through Diomed's territory: but as it also belonged to Turnus' (comp. Hor. 3 Od. 30. 10 foll.), it seems rather to indicate the supposed terror in Italy on the approach of the Trojans. With the image comp. 6. 800, and, if the parallel be not out of place, Psalm 114. 3. ‘Retro fugit undas,’ flies backward from the sea into which it would naturally fall.

[406] Quint. 9. 3 notes this place as an instance of archaism, coupling it with the use of “sed enim” 1. 19. He can scarcely mean to refer to anything else but the use of ‘vel cum;’ there however the only peculiarity is in the absence of an apodosis, which, as Wagn. remarks, is similarly omitted in Hor. Epod. 12. 13, the meaning obviously being, ‘or, to take another case, when &c.,’ a sort of indignant ejaculation, as we might say ‘then to hear him when &c.!’ Orelli Hor. l. c. refers to Epod. 2. 17 foll., where the sentence is completed, and we may also comp. E. 9. 21, “Vel quae sublegi tacitus tibi carmina nuper, Cum te ad delicias ferres, Amaryllida, nostras?” Drances had expressed his fear, vv. 348, 357. ‘Pavidum contra mea iurgia,’ afraid to face me in a quarrel. Pliny uses “patientia contra labores,” “invictus contra ictus:” see Forc. ‘contra.’ ‘Iurgia’ refer doubtless to the threats and violence spoken of vv. 348, 354.

[407] “Artificis scelus” 2. 125, of the act of Ulysses, who is in some sort parallel to Drances. ‘Acervat’ Gud. corrected, and another of Ribbeck's cursives, which is not really a variant, though it would make sense, but a mode of writing: see on 4. 498. Drances is said to give sting to his charges against Turnus by pretending to be afraid of him.

[408] With the sentiment Cerda comp. Phaedrus 1. 29. 10 (the boar to the ass), “Facilis vindicta est mihi, Sed inquinari nolo ignavo sanguine.” ‘Absiste moveri’ is similarly interposed 6. 399.

[410] Magne, the reading before Heins., is found in Med. and one of Ribbeck's cursives, and supported by Donatus: but ‘magna’ is more likely in itself, and confirmed by v. 469 below, “Concilium ipse pater et magna incepta Latinus Deserit.” ‘Consulta’ here seem not to be decrees, but matters proposed for deliberation, agreeably to the use of “rem consulis” v. 344 above. So Serv.: “‘Consultorest qui consulit, ‘consultusqui consulitur, ‘consultumvero est res ipsa de qua quis consulitur.”

[411] “Sin aliquam expertus sumptis spem ponis in armis” 2. 676. ‘Nostris’ not Turnus' own, but those of the Latins generally, as the context shows.

[412] Tam deserti:si ita valde, et hoc propter Diomedem qui solus negavit auxilia,” Serv. Pal. and originally Gud. have ‘simul,’ a common confusion.

[413] ‘And our fortune has no power of retracting the step it has made.’ ‘Habere regressum’ is a phrase, and “regressus est alicui,” and “dare,” “offerre regressum” are also found: see Forc. There is a reading “recursum,” perhaps countenanced by one of Ribbeck's cursives.

[414] Inertis is found in all Ribbeck's MSS.; but Serv. on 1. 487 quotes the line with ‘inermis,’ which was the reading before Heins. See on 10. 595.

[415] Wagn. and Forb. make this line an ejaculation; but the old pointing, making it the protasis to what follows, seems better. “Quamquam o” 5. 195, where there is an aposiopesis.

[416] The sentiment is a general one, but ‘mihi’ emphasizes and individualizes it. ‘Fortunatus laborum:’ for the construction see on G. 1. 276; for the use of ‘labor’ for exertion in war, v. 126 above.

[417] Egregius animi like “fidens animi” 2. 61, “infelix animi” 4. 529 notes. ‘Ne quid tale’ like “nil tale” 9. 207.

[418] Rom. has ‘simul,’ and there are traces of it in Pal. and Med. See above v. 412. ‘Semel’ is once for all. For biting the ground in death see on 10. 489.

[419] “‘Intacta iuventusnon quae pugnavit, sed de qua adhuc delectus habendus est,” Serv.; where Lion's “quae non pugnavit” is unnecessary, the meaning being ‘not which has been engaged and escaped uninjured, but which has never been engaged.’

[420] Auxilio with ‘supersunt,’ though the verb belongs also to ‘opes’ and ‘iuventus.’ To suppose with Serv. that there is any stress on ‘Italae,’ as if Diomed's soldiers were taunted as being not Italian but Greek, seems refining.

[421] Cum multo sanguine is perhaps a translation of οὐκ ἀναιμωτί in Il. 17. 363, which the commentators comp. Canon. has ‘cumulataque gloria.’

[422] Rom. and one of Ribbeck's cursives have ‘suntque,’ but the sentence is parenthetical. ‘Omnis’ may either be the whole Trojan host, or all engaged in the field, Trojans as well as Latins, which latter seems better. Serv. mentions a variant ‘illi,’ which he attempts to explain: but it arises from the initial ‘s’ of ‘sua.

[423] Tempestas, the same metaphor as in 7. 223, which Serv. comp. ‘Indecores’ 7. 231. “In limine primo” 2. 485. Here the threshold of the war or of the undertaking is meant.

[424] Ante tubam, a proverbial expression: comp. Juv. 1. 169. It repeats ‘in limine primo’ more strongly. “Sopor occupat artusG. 4. 190.

[425] Multa not with ‘dies,’ as in Hor. A. P. 293, but neut. pl., as ‘multos’ shows. For ‘dies’ alone in the sense of time comp. Hor. 3 Od. 6. 45, “Damnosa quid non inminuit dies?” ‘Labor aevi’ is difficult. Naturally it would seem to stand for the wear and tear, or as we say, the action of time, as Peerlkamp and Gossrau take it; and so Val. F. 2. 619, Claud. Eutrop. 1. 288, whom they quote, appear to have understood it: while it might be suggested that the word was chosen to point the contrast with human exertion. But it seems more Virgilian to interpret the words with Heyne (nearly) and Forb. of the human actions that necessarily take place in a long course of time, so as to modify previous circumstances. In that case there will be the opposition between ‘labor’ and ‘Fortuna’ which we find repeatedly in Virg. (comp. 12. 435), the meaning being that they ought to trust first to the effect of time and exertion, secondly to that of chance. ‘Varii’ Rom., Med., and Pal. originally, ‘varius’ Med. and Pal. corrected, and three of Ribbeck's cursives, one of these in an erasure. Gud. has both, the former as a variant. The latter was the reading before Heins., and Ribbeck restores it: but it does not seem worth while to make the change. ‘Mutabilis’ is perhaps active, though Forc. gives no instance of the use. With the sense generally comp. 3. 415, “Tantum aevi longinqua valet mutare vetustas,” which Val. F. and Claud. l. c. had also in their minds. Macrob. Sat. 6. 2 thinks Virg. imitated Enn. A. 8, fr. 23, “Multa dies in bello conficit unus, Et rursus multae fortunae forte recumbunt: Haudquaquam quemquam semper Fortuna secuta est.

[426] “In melius referet” 1. 281. ‘Alterna’ qualifies ‘revisens,’ being virtually adverbial—not however, as Heyne suggests, a neuter pl., but like “alternos” 3. 423, “alternaG. 3. 192. “Fortuna revisit” 3. 318. It may be doubted whether ‘alterna revisens’ means ‘revisiting them in alternate forms,’ now as good fortune, now as bad, or ‘now leaving them, now visiting them again.’ Comp. Hor. 1 Od. 35. 23 foll., where the wavering of the poet between the two notions of fortune changing from good to ill and good fortune leaving the unfortunate perplexes the passage, and led Bentley to propose the change of ‘linquis’ into ‘vertis.’

[427] ‘Has first mocked, then restored,’ ‘locavit’ being the more prominent notion, ‘lusit’ expressing a previous action, such as would be denoted by a past part., were there one in Latin. ‘In solido:’ “praesentia bona nondum tota in solido sunt” Sen. de Ben. 3. 4, quoted by Forc. Comp. 2. 169 note. One or two MSS. ingeniously read ‘in solito.’

[429] Erit (auxilio). ‘Tolumnius’ 12. 258. ‘Felix’ doubtless as an augur whom they would think it lucky to have on their side, and who would interpret things in their favour: comp. “secundus haruspex” v. 739 below.

[430] Serv. says, “Hoc significat: Latina pubes celerrime victoriam adipiscitur, quam vix Graeci post decennium sunt adepti,” from which it would seem that he read ‘nec tarda,’ which is found in two or three copies (none of Ribbeck's), and was restored by Heins., and retained by Heyne. Serv. however may have thought, as later writers suggest, of G. 2. 52, and it does not seem safe to desert the reading of the vast majority of MSS. on such grounds.

[431] Delectos may either mean chosen chiefs, or forces raised by a “delectus.” “Sequatur gloria” 6. 756, where it refers to future renown. Here ‘sequetur’ perhaps means ‘shall attend them on their march.’

[432, 433] 7. 803, 804.

[434] See above v. 220.

[435] “Et in tantum obsum commodis publicis ut nisi solus dimicavero concidat universa respublica,” Serv.

[436] Adeo refers to ‘ut,’ though Serv. and Forb. take it as modifying ‘non.’ Victory is said to attend on the hands of a combatant, as in Ov. Trist. 2. 170 on the standard of a general, or in Juv. 8. 63 to sit on the yoke of a winning horse. The conception of the goddess with wings makes such expressions natural. ‘Fugit,’ in times past. It matters little whether ‘manus’ be taken with ‘exosa’ or with ‘fugit.

[437] Tanta pro spe, the marriage and the succession rather than, as the commentators mostly think, the glory of saving the state.

[438] Animis = “animose:” see on v. 18 above. It is difficult to say whether ‘praestet’ here = “superet” or “exhibeat.” Serv. and the older commentators take the former view, Forb. the latter. For the construction with acc. in the former sense see Forc. With the general sense of the passage comp. Il. 18. 305 foll.

[440] Turnus goes through a sort of formula of self-devotion, not unlike that given in Livy 8. 9, as Taubm. remarks. The natural construction would have been “pro vobis,” the dat. being used of the powers to whom the person bound himself over: but Virg. as usual has chosen to vary it, regarding Latinus and the commonwealth as the parties to whom Turnus is thus consigned. Med. originally had ‘Latini,’ apparently a voc.

[441] Turnus ego gives solemnity.

[442] ‘Devovi’ seems a sort of aorist, i. q. “devoveo,” which was itself the reading before Heins. The only variety in Ribbeck's MSS. is that Rom. gives ‘devivo,’ which was probably the original reading of Gud. This may point to ‘devoveo,’ or it may be the origin of that reading. ‘Solum Aeneas vocat’ is Turnus' summary of what Drances has said, referring apparently to Drances' reported words above v. 220. ‘Vocet oro:’ Turnus wishes that Aeneas may do so formally in his hearing. Comp. Aeneas' words 10. 875.

[443] Turnus affects to suppose that Drances may be apprehensive or ambitious of standing in his place as the champion of the Latins against Aeneas, and says that he wishes to spare him either contingency, death or victory. ‘Sive est haec ira deorum,’ whether this crisis imports the wrath of heaven, i. e. whether it is destined to be fatal. Comp. the use of “ira deum” of the Harpies 3. 215.

[444] “Morte luet” v. 849 below. ‘Luat’ “iram,” which may = either “poenas” or “commissa,” both of which are commonly constructed with ‘luere.’ ‘Virtus et gloria:’ if it be intended as an opportunity for displaying valour and gaining glory. ‘Tollat’ suits ‘gloria’ rather than ‘virtus.’ Comp. the use of “laus” for valour.

[445-485] ‘An alarm is given that Aeneas is marching on the city. Turnus breaks up the assembly and gives orders for defence and attack. Latinus retires in despair. The queen and Lavinia go with a train of matrons to the temple of Pallas, and pray for the defeat and death of Aeneas.’

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